dopamine


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Related to dopamine: norepinephrine, serotonin

dopamine

 [do´pah-mēn]
a compound produced by the decarboxylation of dopa; it is the direct precursor in the synthesis of norepinephrine and is also a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. It is administered intravenously to correct hemodynamic imbalance in persons with shock because it increases blood pressure, especially systolic pressure, as well as urinary output; it is also used as a cardiac stimulant.

do·pa·mine (DM),

(dō'pă-mēn),
An intermediate in tyrosine metabolism and precursor of norepinephrine and epinephrine; neurotransmitter is the peripheral and central nervous systems; depletion of dopamine produces Parkinson disease.

dopamine

/do·pa·mine/ (-mēn) a catecholamine formed in the body by the decarboxylation of dopa; it is an intermediate product in the synthesis of norepinephrine, and acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. The hydrochloride salt is used to correct hemodynamic balance in the treatment of shock and is also used as a cardiac stimulant.

dopamine

(dō′pə-mēn′)
n.
A monoamine neurotransmitter formed in the brain by the decarboxylation of dopa and essential to the normal functioning of the central nervous system. A reduction in its concentration within the brain is associated with Parkinson's disease.

dopamine

[dō′pəmin]
a naturally occurring sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitter that is the precursor of norepinephrine. It is produced in the substantia nigra and transmitted to the putamen and caudate nucleus. It has an inhibitory effect on movement. A depletion of dopamine produces the symptoms of rigidity, tremors, and bradykinesia that are characteristic of Parkinson's disease. It is available as an intravenously injectable drug. Dopamine has potent dopaminergic, beta-adrenergic, and alpha-adrenergic receptor activity. See also dopamine hydrochloride.

dopamine

Neurology A catecholamine hormone and neurotransmitter essential to CNS activity; it is involved motor control, cognition, and reward; abnormal dopamine levels occur in Parkinson's disease, paranoia, memory and concentration defects; dopamine may modulate endorphin levels, altering perception of pain and pleasure; it restricts prolactin, affecting libido See Biogenic amine, Catecholamine, Indolamine, Serotonin.

do·pa·mine

(DM) (dō'pă-mēn)
An intermediate in tyrosine metabolism and precursor of norepinephrine and epinephrine.

dopamine

A monoamine NEUROTRANSMITTER and hormone with an adrenaline-like action. Dopamine is the principal neurotransmitter in the extrapyramidal system. It is formed in the brain from the amino acid tyrosine via dopa and the latter, in the form of levodopa is used to treat PARKINSON'S DISEASE. Dopamine is the precursor of noradrenaline. It is also concerned with mood, memory and food intake. Excess is associated with psychiatric disorders. Dopamine is converted into at least 30 other substances some of which are hallucinogenic. The drug is on the WHO official list.

dopamine

the decarboxylation product of DOPA. Formula: C8H11 O2 N.

Dopamine

A neurochemical made in the brain that is involved in many brain activities, including movement and emotion.

dopamine

a neurotransmitter, especially within the brain, in pathways related to the co-ordination of movement and to behaviour and emotion; deficiency of dopamine in the brain is associated with Parkinson's disease. Its secretion from the brain into the hypophysial portal blood vessels inhibits prolactin secretion from the anterior pituitary. Also, in the adrenal medulla it is a precursor of adrenaline and noradrenaline, and is itself released as a neurohormone.

dopamine

central nervous system neurotransmitter, found especially in substantia nigra of basal ganglia (i.e. caudate and lentiform nuclei) essential for normal movement; loss of dopamine transmission within substantia nigra is characteristic of parkinsonism (see Table 1)
Table 1: Effects of stimulation of alpha, beta and dopamine receptors
ReceptorActionStimulating drug
Alpha-1 (α1); postsynapticVasoconstriction; positive inotropism; antidiuresisAdrenaline +
Noradrenaline +++
Alpha-2 (α2); presynapticVasodilatation; inhibition of noradrenaline releaseAdrenaline +
Noradrenaline +++
Dopamine +
Alpha-2 (α2); postsynapticConstriction of coronary arteries; promotion of salt and water excretionAdrenaline +
Noradrenaline +++
Dopamine +
Beta-1 (β1); postsynapticPositive inotropism; chronotropism; renin releaseAdrenaline ++
Noradrenaline ++
Isoprenaline ++
Dopamine +
Beta-2 (β2); presynapticNoradrenaline release accelerated; positive inotropism; chronotropismAdrenaline +
Isoprenaline +++
Beta-2 (β2); postsynapticVasodilatation; relaxation of bronchial smooth muscleAdrenaline +
Isoprenaline +++
Dopamine1; postsynapticVasodilatation; diuresisDopamine ++
Dopamine1; presynapticInhibits noradrenaline releaseDopamine +

Plus signs indicate degree of effect.

dopamine (dōˑ·p·mēn),

n a neurochemical that supports fine motor activity, blood pressure, focus, inspiration, intuition, enthusiasm, and joy, among other functions.

do·pa·mine

(dō'pă-mēn)
An intermediate in tyrosine metabolism and precursor of norepinephrine and epinephrine.

dopamine

(dō´pəmēn´),
n a sympathomimetic catecholamine used in the treatment of shock, hypotension, and low cardiac output.

dopamine

a compound, hydroxytyramine, produced by the decarboxylation of dopa; an intermediate product in the synthesis of norepinephrine. It is a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system; administered intravenously to correct hemodynamic imbalance in shock syndrome.

dopamine agonist
used to terminate pregnancy. See bromocriptine, cabergoline.
dopamine β-hydroxylase
enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of norepinephrine from dopamine. A copper-containing mono-oxygenase requiring vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
References in periodicals archive ?
Is the short-latency dopamine response too short to signal reward error?
When drinking alcohol, for example, the level of dopamine is decreased accordingly with the respective loss of sensitivity to "praise and blame.
Covers findings in the medicinal chemistry of DAT-inhibitory ligands and substrates, discussing the chemical syntheses and summarizing the various structure-activity relationships of important classes of dopamine uptake inhibitors and dopamine releasers
This study shows that we can now produce fully functioning dopamine neurons from stem cells.
Along with dopamine, the neurotransmitters noradrenaline and serotonin are transported by related transporters, which can be studied with greater accuracy based on the dopamine transporter structure.
The new findings suggest that dopamine may naturally increase when a person is sleep-deprived, counteracting a revved-up drive to sleep, says David Dinges of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in Philadelphia.
Kent Berridge, a neuroscientist and psychologist at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, and his colleagues set out to understand how dopamine could lead to desire for a reward, and then turn around and cause fear, pain and stress.
Anthony Cincotta, Chief Scientific Officer of VeroScience, stated, "The findings presented in these studies, as a whole, point to the critical role of brain dopamine interactions with the hypothalamic clock pacemaker system in the regulation of glucose metabolism.
Rice says the experiments she and her colleagues conducted not only reaffirm that insulin helps trigger the reuptake of dopamine when insulin levels rise, but also are the first to show that the net effect is a rise in dopamine levels.
According to the researchers, the aim of the research was to design and produce a system for quicker and more cost-efficient detection of dopamine in comparison with usual methods.
Published in 'Nature Chemical Biology, the findings bring in a factor of hope that schizophrenia can be controlled by a "dimmer switch" which helps dim the dopamine, eliminating the side effect caused by the complete blockage of dopamine.
Dopamine levels in the brain surge after methamphetamine use; this increase is associated with the motivation to continue using the drug, despite its adverse consequences.