diuretic


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diuretic

 [di″u-ret´ik]
1. increasing diuresis (urine excretion).
2. an agent that does this, such as common substances like tea, coffee, and water, as well as medications. Types include loop diuretics, osmotic diuretics, potassium-sparing diuretics, and thiazide diuretics, with the most frequently prescribed being the thiazides. Diuretics are used chiefly in treatment of edema resulting from conditions other than kidney disease; the abnormal kidney rarely responds to them. They are most useful in relieving edema accompanying congestive heart failure. Many, especially the thiazides, are used in the management of hypertension, particularly when used in conjunction with other kinds of antihypertensive agents.
loop d's a group of diuretics that block active transport of chloride in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle, which stops coupled passive reabsorption of sodium. Some may cause ototoxicity with reversible impaired hearing, and kidney damage from nephrotoxicity; therefore these are contraindicated in renal disease. furosemide, which belongs to this group, is a sulfonamide; hence, hypersensitivity reaction can develop in persons with a specific allergy.
osmotic d's a group of diuretics that produce a rapid loss of sodium and water by inhibiting their reabsorption in the kidney tubules and loop of Henle; they also increase the osmolality of plasma, thus increasing diffusion of water from the intraocular and cerebrospinal fluids, and are used for reducing the pressure of these fluids. mannitol is clinically the most useful of this group, but it has significant side effects such as pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure.
potassium-sparing d's a group of diuretics that block the exchange of sodium for potassium and hydrogen ions in the distal tubule, causing an increase in excretion of sodium and chloride with a negligible increase in potassium excretion. They do not carry the threat of potassium loss, but they do present a potential problem of hyperkalemia. triamterene, one of the diuretics in this group, also can lead to hyperglycemia in diabetic patients.
thiazide d's a group of diuretics in the thiazide family; they decrease reabsorption of sodium by the kidney and thereby increase loss of water and sodium. They also increase urinary secretion of chloride, potassium, and, to some extent, bicarbonate ions. These are the most frequently prescribed diuretics, because they are moderately potent and have relatively few side effects. Most act within 1 hour after being taken and are excreted in 3 to 6 hours. Patients who are taking a thiazide diuretic should be monitored for electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, and, in the case of diabetic patients, hyperglycemia, which may necessitate an increase in their insulin dosage. Because gastrointestinal irritation can occur, it is advisable to take these diuretics at mealtime.

di·u·ret·ic

(dī'yū-ret'ik), Do not confuse this word with dieretic.
1. Promoting excretion of urine.
2. An agent that increases the amount of urine excreted.

diuretic

/di·uret·ic/ (di″u-ret´ik)
1. pertaining to or causing diuresis.
2. an agent that promotes diuresis.

high-ceiling diuretics , loop diuretics those exerting their action on the sodium reabsorption mechanism of the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle, resulting in excretion of urine isotonic with plasma.
osmotic diuretics  a group of low-molecular-weight substances that can remain in high concentrations in renal tubules, thus contributing to osmolality of glomerular filtrate.
potassium-sparing diuretics  those blocking exchange of sodium for potassium and hydrogen ions in the distal tubule, increasing sodium and chloride excretion without increasing potassium excretion.
thiazide diuretics  a group of synthetic compounds that decrease reabsorption of sodium by the kidney and thereby increase loss of water and sodium; they enhance excretion of sodium and chloride equally.

diuretic

(dī′ə-rĕt′ĭk)
adj.
Tending to increase the discharge of urine.
n.
A substance or drug that tends to increase the discharge of urine.

di′u·ret′ic·al·ly adv.

diuretic

[dī′yoo͡ret′ik]
1 adj, (of a drug or other substance) tending to promote the formation and excretion of urine.
2 n, a drug that promotes the formation and excretion of urine. The more than 50 diuretic drugs available in the United States and Canada are classified by chemical structure and pharmacological activity into groups: carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, loop diuretics, mercurials, osmotics, potassium-sparing diuretics, and thiazides. A diuretic medication may contain drugs from one or more of these groups. Diuretics are prescribed to reduce the volume of extracellular fluid in the treatment of many disorders, including hypertension, congestive heart failure, and edema. The specific drug to be prescribed is selected according to the action desired and the patient's physical status. Hypersensitivity to sulfonamides prohibits use of many diuretic drugs, and diabetes mellitus may be aggravated by thiazide medications. Thus the presence of a particular condition may prohibit the use of a particular agent. Several adverse reactions, including hypovolemia and electrolyte imbalance, are common to all diuretics. Mercurial diuretics are rarely used because of their nephrotoxicity, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors have only weak diuretic activity.

diuretic

Herbal medicine
A herb that stimulates urination, which includes bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), burdock (Arctium lappa), couch grass (Agropyrum repens), hydrangea (Hydrangea arborescens), juniper (Juniperus communis), parsley (Petroselinum sativum), pellitory-of-the-wall (Parietaria officinalis), queen-of-the-meadow (Eupatorium purpureum), stone root (Collinsonia canadensis), wild carrot (Daucus carota), yarrow (Achillea millefolium).

diuretic

Physiology adjective Referring to or evoking diuresis noun Water pill An agent that ↑ excretion of fluid from the renal tubules, which are most commonly used in CHF Adverse effects Hemodynamics–eg, reflex tachcardia, SNS activation with catecholamine release, activation of RAA system, renal function–eg, ↓ perfusion leading to ↑ BUN and creatinine, electrolytes–eg, ↓ potassium and/or magnesium. See Potassium-sparing diuretic.

di·u·ret·ic

(dī-yūr-et'ik)
1. Promoting excretion of urine.
2. An agent that increases the amount of urine excreted.

diuretic

1. A drug or other agency that causes an increased output of urine. Diuretics are used to rid the body of OEDEMA fluid in conditions such as HEART FAILURE and kidney disease.
2. Causing a DIURESIS. See also LOOP DIURETICS.

diuretic

a substance that enhances DIURESIS.

Diuretic

Medicine that increases the amount of urine produced and relieves excess fluid buildup in body tissues. Diuretics may be used in treating high blood pressure, lung disease, premenstrual syndrome, and other conditions.

diuretic (dīˈ·y·reˑ·tik),

n a substance that promotes urination.

di·u·ret·ic

(dī-yūr-et'ik) Do not confuse this word with dieretic.
1. Promoting excretion of urine.
2. An agent that increases amount of urine excreted.

diuretic (dī´yəret´ik),

n 1. a drug that increases the formation of urine.
adj 2. pertaining to the increased formation of urine. Used mainly in the initial treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure).
diuretic, loop,
n a high-potency therapeutic agent used to control hypertension by exerting influence on the loop of Henle in order to facilitate the removal of surplus water and sodium from the body. See furosemide.

diuretic

1. increasing urine excretion or the amount of urine.
2. an agent that promotes urine secretion.

aldosterone antagonist diuretic
affects tubular function by blocking the sodium retention activity of aldosterone. See also spironolactone.
aminouracil d's
heterocyclic compounds similar to xanthines and with similar effects. See xanthine diuretics (below).
benzothiazide d's
exert their effect on the proximal part of the renal tubule preventing resorption of sodium. Called also thiazide diuretics. The best known members of the group are chlorothiazide and its derivatives.
carbonic anhydrase inhibitor d's
inhibit carbonic anhydrase activity and inhibit ion exchange mechanisms especially that of sodium and potassium ions. See also acetazolamide.
loop of Henle d's
affect the resorption of sodium in the ascending loop of Henle. Called also loop diuretic. See also furosemide, ethacrynate sodium.
mercurial diuretic
now largely displaced; the mode of action is to interfere with tubular enzyme systems so that tubular resorption is blocked. Overuse causes permanent renal damage.
osmotic d's
produce a very rapid loss of sodium and water by inhibiting their reabsorption in the kidney tubules and the loop of Henle. Mannitol is clinically the most useful of these diuretics, but it has some serious side-effects, such as pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure.
potassium-retaining d's
appear to act directly on renal tubular function. See also triamterene.
xanthine d's
have effect of stimulating cardiac activity but also have a direct effect on the renal tubules. See also theophylline.
References in periodicals archive ?
On the basis of PATHWAY-3, the combination of amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide in equivalent doses becomes the preferred choice for diuretic treatment in patients with insulin resistance, such as obese hypertensives or those with elevated fasting plasma glucose.
AKI patients are given diuretics to prevent fluid from building up in the body, but for about 30 to 40 per cent of these patients the drug most commonly prescribed to prevent fluid build-up does not work, Dr Hames said.
The three metabolic adverse events that researchers assessed were hyponatremia (low sodium levels in the blood), hypokalemia (low potassium levels in the blood), and acute kidney injury (a 25 percent decrease in kidney function from the baseline value before the thiazide diuretic was started).
Diuretic drugs are clinically used to the treatment of oedema, hypertension, urolithiasis and others diseases (Orjala et al.
By adapting an existing drug-Torsemide- into a much-needed extended release formulation, Sarfez is hoping to give patients resistant to the current diuretics a drug that will support their diuresis for more than 12 hours, rather than the maximum of four hours available with current medications.
For enrollment, the following inclusion criteria were applied: evidence of right or bi-ventricular chronic heart failure in III NYHA class; resistance to oral diuretic therapy, as proven by recent occurrence of oliguria (urine output <20 mL per hour during 12 hours at least) despite oral furosemide therapy at dose [greater than or equal to] 125 mg per day; ascertained administration-during day hospital or ordinary hospital stay-of one course or more of IV unloading intensive therapy with loop diuretic (furosemide in all cases).
Solo will not be suspended for testing positive for the diuretic, which is a USADA banned substance, but will be issued a public warning.
9 hip fractures per 100,000 new loop diuretic prescriptions, according to Dr.
The study included 33,000 people who were randomized to take one of three blood pressure-lowering medications: a thiazide diuretic, a calcium-channel blocker, or an ACE inhibitor.
More than 33,000 patients with high blood pressure were randomly assigned to take either a diuretic (chlorthalidone) or one of two newer drugs, a calcium channel blocker (amlodipine) or an ACE inhibitor (lisinopril).
Egan's comments follow the latest positive test, which resulted in apprentice Michael Enright being fined EUR300 at a hearing of the referrals committee on Tuesday after traces of the diuretic furosemide, a banned substance, were confirmed in a urine sample taken from the jockey at Naas on July 7.
Though alcoholic drinks have a diuretic effect, meaning they increase the amount of liquid lost to the body through urination, the physicians said that one or two beers would not have a high enough concentration of alcohol to induce a diuretic effect.