disulfiram


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disulfiram

 [di-sul´fĭ-ram]
Antabuse; a compound that, when used in the presence of alcohol, produces distressing symptoms such as severe nausea and vomiting. It is a dangerous drug, should always be given under the supervision of a physician and is never given to a patient who is in a state of intoxication or does not have full knowledge of its effects. Disulfiram inhibits the oxidation of acetaldehyde produced by the metabolism of alcohol; the resultant accumulation of acetaldehyde in the body is what causes nausea, vomiting, palpitation, dyspnea, and lowered blood pressure. Occasionally this may lead to profound collapse.

di·sul·fi·ram

(dī-sŭl'fi-ram),
An antioxidant that interferes with the normal metabolic degradation of alcohol in the body, resulting in increased acetaldehyde concentrations in blood and tissues. Used in the treatment of chronic alcoholism; when taken regularly in chronic alcoholism, it can lower the risk of relapse by inducing severe malaise and nausea if alcohol is consumed. Also used as a chelator in copper and nickel poisoning.

disulfiram

/di·sul·fi·ram/ (di-sul´fĭ-ram) an antioxidant that inhibits the oxidation of the acetaldehyde metabolized from alcohol, resulting in high concentrations of acetaldehyde in the body. Used to produce aversion to alcohol in the treatment of alcoholism because extremely uncomfortable symptoms occur when its administration is followed by ingestion of alcohol.

disulfiram

(dī-sŭl′fə-răm′)
n.
A drug used in the treatment of alcoholism that interferes with the metabolic degradation of alcohol, producing an unpleasant reaction when even a small quantity of alcohol is consumed.

disulfiram

[dīsul′firam]
an alcohol-use deterrent.
indications It is prescribed as a deterrent to drinking alcohol in the treatment of chronic alcoholism. It causes severe intestinal cramping, diaphoresis, and nausea and vomiting if alcohol is ingested. It requires that the patient explicitly know that, when combined with alcohol intake, death may occur.
contraindications Alcoholic intoxication; recent or concomitant administration of metronidazole, paraldehyde, or alcohol; severe myocardial disease; coronary occlusion; psychosis; or known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its use.
adverse effects The most serious adverse reactions, which include optic neuritis, psychotic reaction, and polyneuritis, result from alcohol ingestion. Drowsiness, headache, and skin rash may occur. This drug interacts with several other drugs, such as metronidazole and warfarin.

disulfiram

Antabuse® An antioxidant that interferes with alcohol metabolism, resulting in ↑ acetaldehyde concentrations; it is effective in treating alcoholism as it produces aversive symptoms if combined with alcohol

di·sul·fi·ram

(dī-sŭl'fi-ram)
An antioxidant that interferes with the normal metabolic degradation of alcohol in the body, resulting in increased acetaldehyde concentrations in blood and tissues. Used in the treatment of chronic alcoholism; when taken regularly in chronic alcoholism, it can lower the risk of relapse by inducing severe malaise and nausea if alcohol is consumed. Also used as a chelator in copper and nickel poisoning.

disulfiram

A drug that interferes with the normal metabolism of alcohol so that a toxic substance, acetaldehyde, accumulates. This causes flushing, sweating, nausea, vomiting, faintness, headache, chest pain and sometimes convulsions and collapse. It is sometimes used to discourage drinking, but is not without danger. A brand name is Antabuse.

disulfiram

(dīsul´fəram´),
n brand name: Antabuse;
drug class: aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor;
action: blocks oxidation of alcohol at acetaldehyde stage;
uses: chronic alcoholism (as adjunct).
References in periodicals archive ?
Disulfiram may thus prove to be effective against leishmaniasis.
Florez favors acamprosate and topiramate for alcohol craving, naltrexone for the purpose of reducing the "priming" phenomenon (in which some patients experience an increased desire for alcohol after a single drink) and disulfiram for reducing alcohol intake.
In rats, a combination of levodopa, benserazide, and disulfiram injected intraperitoneally increases striatal contents of DOPAL to about 2 ng/mg protein (about 13 pmol/mg), without a semichronic effect on striatal dopamine contents after repeated injections (10).
Alcoholism treatment by disulfiram and community reinforcement counseling.
Use of an alcohol-containing mouth rinse in persons taking disulfiram (Antabuse[R]) and metronidazole (Flagyl[R]) is contraindicated because, in combination, they may induce nausea, vomiting and other unpleasant side effects.
Coverage includes the use of CM interventions to promote abstinence from commonly abused drugs such as cocaine, marijuana, methamphetamine, alcohol, the opioids, and smoked nicotine; the use of CM to enhance compliance with pharmacological treatments, such as disulfiram and naltrexone; the use of CM across a range of populations, including adolescents, pregnant women, homeless individuals, and people with mental illness; and review and discussion of the encouraging, rapidly expanding, and widespread dissemination of CM approaches to substance abuse treatment.
The study of alcohol-dependent patients included healthcare utilization variables for 20,752 patients, half of whom used an FDA-approved medication for alcohol dependence - VIVITROL, oral naltrexone, oral disulfiram or oral acamprosate - and half of whom had not used one of these medications.
In contrast, disulfiram did not consistently reduce any measure of alcohol consumption or improve any alcohol-related health outcome.
3% should not be used concomitantly with or within 2 weeks of disulfiram treatment.
Disulfiram has been used for decades to treat alcohol dependence; naltrexone was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1984 as a treatment for opioid dependence and then later (in 1994) as an adjunct to the treatment of alcohol dependence; and buprenorphine was approved by the FDA for treatment of opioid dependence in 2002.
2005), naltrexone, disulfiram, or a combination of both was added to treatment as usual.
Among four medications studied, use of Vivitrol was associated with fewer inpatient detox days than use of oral naltrexone, disulfiram (Antabuse), or acamprosate (Campral), and fewer alcoholism-related inpatient days than disulfiram or acamprosate.