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image

 [im´ahj]
a picture or concept with more or less likeness to an objective reality.
body image see body image.
digital image a depiction recorded electronically to allow viewing or transmission on a computer.
image distributor beam splitter.
disturbed body image a nursing diagnosis defined as confusion in the mental picture of one's personal self. See also body image.
fluoroscopic image a visual depiction on a fluoroscopy screen.
image intensifier a fluoroscope that is electronically enhanced to produce a brighter image; see also automatic brightness control, brightness gain, and vignetting.
latent image the invisible change in radiographic film that is caused by x-radiation or light and is made visible by development of the film.
magnification image direct radiographic enlargement requiring a fractional focus tube of 0.3 mm or less.
manifest image the change on an x-ray film that becomes visible when the latent image undergoes appropriate chemical processing.
mirror image
1. the image of light made visible by the reflecting surface of the cornea and lens when illuminated through the slit lamp.
2. an image with right and left relations reversed, as in the reflection of an object in a mirror.
motor image the organized cerebral model of the possible movements of the body.
phantom image an artifact seen in conventional linear tomography.

im·age

(im'ăj),
1. Representation of an object made by the rays of light emanating or reflected from it.
2. Representation produced by x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging, tomography, ultrasound, thermography, radioisotopes, summated ECGs, PET scans, detection of electron energy states, among others.
3. To produce such representations.
[L. imago, likeness]

image

/im·age/ (im´ahj) a picture or concept with likeness to an objective reality.
body image  the three-dimensional concept of one's self, recorded in the cortex by perception of everchanging body postures, and constantly changing with them.
false image  that formed by the deviating eye in strabismus.
mirror image  one with right and left relations reversed, as in the reflection of an object in a mirror.
Purkinje-Sanson mirror images  three reflected images of an object seen in observing the pupil of the eye: two on the posterior and anterior surfaces of the lens, one on the anterior surface of the cornea.
motor image  the organized cerebral model of the possible movements of the body.
real image  one formed where the emanating rays are collected, in which the object is pictured as being inverted.
virtual image  a picture from projected light rays that are intercepted before focusing.

image

[im′ij]
Etymology: L, imago, likeness
1 a representation or visual reproduction of the likeness of someone or something, such as a painting, photograph, or sculpture.
2 an optic representation of an object, such as that produced by refraction or reflection.
3 a person or thing that closely resembles another; semblance.
4 a mental picture, representation, idea, or concept of an objective reality.
5 (in psychology) a mental representation of something previously perceived and subsequently modified by other experiences, resulting from intrapsychic or extrapsychic stimuli, or both.

IMAGE

Improving Management in Gastroenterology. An initiative funded by the Health Foundation (UK) which is meant to improve the quality of care given in four index gastrointestinal conditions: inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, gastrooesophageal reflux disease, and coeliac disease.

image

See Afterimage, Body image, Eidetic image, Fictive image, Glamor image, Perceptual image, Professional image.

IMAGE

Cardiology A clinical trial–International Multicenter Angina that evaluated medical management to reduce ischemia in Pts with stable angina. See Metoprolol, Nifedipine, Stable angina.

im·age

(im'ăj)
1. Representation of an object made by the rays of light emanating or reflected from it.
2. Representation produced by x-rays, ultrasound, tomography, thermography, radioisotopes, or other modalities.
3. To produce such a representation.
[L. imago, likeness]

image

A picture of an object formed by a lens, a mirror or other optical system. See object; image plane.
aerial image An image found in space and not on a screen, such as the image viewed in indirect ophthalmoscopy.
after-image See after-image.
axial point image The point of intersection of an image with the optical axis.
catadioptric image Image formed by both reflecting and refracting surfaces. See catadioptric system.
catoptric image Image formed by specular reflection, either from a mirror or by reflection at refracting surfaces such as the optical surfaces of the eye, which form the Purkinje-Sanson images.
corneal image Catoptric image formed by either the anterior or posterior surface of the cornea. They are also called the first and second Purkinje-Sanson images.
dioptric image An image formed by a refracting surface as distinguished from a catoptric image.
direct image A virtual image such as the erect image seen in direct ophthalmoscopy.
double image A pair of images obtained either optically through a doubling system or due to diplopia.
eidetic image Visual perception arising from the imagination of the subject or what has previously been seen, and not from immediate retinal stimulation. That image may last from a few seconds to several minutes and appears to be located in front of the eyes.
entoptic image Visual sensation arising from stimuli within the eye and perceived as in the external world. Examples: muscae volitantes; phosphene. Syn. entoptic phenomenon. See angioscotoma; blue arcs; blue field entoptoscope; floaters; Haidinger's brushes; Maxwell's spot.
erect image Image that is not inverted with respect to the object such as a virtual image produced by a concave lens. See Purkinje-Sanson images.
extraordinary image See birefringence.
false image 1. The retinal image in the deviating eye in strabismus. It is less well defined than the true image. 2. See ghost image. See true image.
ghost image 1. Unwanted image as may be formed by internal reflection in a lens or an optical system. These images are sometimes annoying to spectacle wearers, and even to observers as they detract from the appearance of the spectacle lens or hide the wearer's eyes behind a veil. The intensity of ghost images is diminished by antireflection coatings. 2. The faint image seen in monocular diplopia. Syn. false image. See Fresnel's formula; lens flare; stray light; front surface mirror.
indirect image A real image, such as the inverted image seen in indirect ophthalmoscopy.
inverted image Image that is upside down and right for left with respect to its object. Syn. reversed image. See Purkinje-Sanson images.
image jump See jump.
image line See focal line.
ocular image 1. The retinal image. 2. The image formed by the refracting system of the eye, disregarding the presence or the position of the retina.
perceptual image; psychic image See visual image.
Purkinje-Sanson image's Catoptric images produced by reflection from the optical surfaces of the eye. The first image is reflected by the anterior surface of the cornea, the second image by the posterior surface of the cornea, the third image by the anterior surface of the crystalline lens and the fourth image by the posterior surface of the crystalline lens. Only the fourth image is inverted. The third is the largest but the first is by far the brightest (Fig. I13). During accommodation, the third image becomes smaller while the size of the fourth diminishes only a little. Purkinje-Sanson images are used to measure or calculate various optical dimensions of the eye, to establish angle alpha or lambda and to contribute to some diagnostic tests of strabismus (e.g. Hirschberg's method; Krimsky's method). Syn. Purkinje images. See optical axis; ophthalmophakometer; phacoscope.
real image An image that can be formed on a screen. See principal focus; real object.
retinal image Image formed on the retina by the optical system of the eye. The size of the retinal image h′ of a distant object subtending angle u in an emmetropic eye is equal to
h′ = u/F
where h′ is in metres, u in radians and the power of the eye F in dioptres. The formula is only valid for small angles (Fig. I14). Example: a distant object subtends an angle of 5º viewed by an emmetropic eye of power 60 D (π is equal to 3.1416)
reversed image See inverted image.
image shell The curved surface containing either all the sagittal or all the tangential foci corresponding to a given object plane. See oblique astigmatism.
image space See image space.
stabilized retinal image See stabilized retinal image.
true image The retinal image in the normally fixating eye in strabismus. See false image.
virtual image One from which refracted or reflected rays appear to have come. This image can be seen but it is not an actual image and cannot be formed on a screen. Examples: the image seen in a plane mirror; the image seen in the cornea. See principal focus; virtual object.
visual image 1. Perceived image formed by the whole visual system. It includes the physiological and psychological processing. Syn. perceptual image; psychic image. 2. A mental picture based on the recollection of a previous visual experience. See aniseikonia; visualization.
Fig. I13 Purkinje-Sanson images I, III and IVenlarge picture
Fig. I13 Purkinje-Sanson images I, III and IV
Fig. I14 Retinal image position and size h′ corresponding to an object at infinity. The angles subtended to the axis at the nodal point N and N′ in object and image space are equal (angles u). Also shown are the rays passing through the centre of the entrance and exit pupils, E and E′. Q, off-axis extreme of the distant objectenlarge picture
Fig. I14 Retinal image position and size h′ corresponding to an object at infinity. The angles subtended to the axis at the nodal point N and N′ in object and image space are equal (angles u). Also shown are the rays passing through the centre of the entrance and exit pupils, E and E′. Q, off-axis extreme of the distant object

Table I1 Approximate relationship between the retinal image size of an emmetropic eye with a power of 60 D and the angular subtense of a distant object
angle (deg)size (mm)
0.017º (or 19)0.0048
0.07º (or 49)0.0194
0.013º (or 89)0.039
0.2º (or 129)0.058
0.4º (or 249)0.12
0.6º (or 369)0.17
0.8º (or 489)0.23
0.29
0.58
0.87
1.16
1.45
1.75
2.33
10º2.91
12º3.49
15º4.36

Table I2 Purkinje-Sanson images (all figures are calculated and rounded off and all distances are referred to the anterior corneal pole)
source of reflectiontype of image (object is at infinity)relative brightness
I anterior corneal surface- virtual1.0
- erect
- smaller than object
- situated near plane of pupil (about 3.9 mm)
II posterior corneal surface- virtual0.01
- erect
- smaller than I (about 3 0.8)
- situated near I (about 3.6 mm)
III anterior lens surface- virtual0.08
- erect
- larger than I (about 3 2.0)
- situated in vitreous (about 10.7 mm)
IV posterior lens surface- real0.08
- inverted
- smaller than I (about 3 0.8)
- situated in the lens (about 4.6 mm)

im·age

(im'ăj)
1. Representation of an object made by the rays of light emanating or reflected from it.
2. Representation produced by x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging, tomography, ultrasound, thermography, radioisotopes, summated electrocardiograms, positron-emission tomography scans, detection of electron energy states, among others.
[L. imago, likeness]

image

the picture reproduced on the x-ray film or by other radioimaging methods such as ultrasonography.

image amplifier system
includes amplifer and viewer or television camera and tape player.
image display modes
see ultrasonography, A-mode, B-mode and M-mode.
image formation
exposure of the film to the x-ray beam ionizing radiation or to other radiant energy forms causes ionic changes in the silver bromide crystals in the film emulsion so that it acquires a silver atom. It is the deposition of reduced silver atoms in particles or zones that causes the black zones or foci on the film. The amount of silver deposited depends on the intensity of the initial radiation x-ray exposure.
image intensification
a technique used to increase the brightness of the image while maintaining its sharpness. Used particularly in fluoroscopy and viewing directly or indirectly through a television camera and monitor, cineradiography, videotape or split-film device.
latent image
the invisible picture on the film after it has been exposed to the x-ray beam. It requires exposure to a developer and fixer before the image is visible and permanent.
weak image
said of x-ray films which lack density due to underexposure, too brief period of development, insufficient developer or developer temperature too low.
References in periodicals archive ?
The present study sought to identify differences in disturbed body image and body change strategies between adolescent boys and girls.