A cognitive routine is taught using explicit instruction, an instructional model that consists of very structured and organized lessons, appropriate cues and prompts, guided and distributed practice, cognitive modeling, interaction between teachers and students, immediate and corrective feedback on performance, positive reinforcement, over-learning, and mastery.
Swanson's review (1999) suggests that the best of the instructional programs include (a) teaching a few critical strategies well; (b) teaching students to monitor their learning and performance; (c) teaching students how, when, and where to use the strategies to promote generalization; (d) integrating strategy instruction into the general curriculum; and (e) providing ongoing supervised student feedback and distributed practice.
According to Ammons (1950), Caplan (1969), Digman (1959), and Koonce, Chambliss, and Irion (1964), distributed practice conditions are superior for people without disabilities.
Many of these studies involved various forms of distributed practice.
The question addressed in this experiment is whether the distributed practice technique of task variation (with maintenance tasks interspersed) is more effective than a constant task condition (commonly referred to as massed practice) when teaching gross motor skills to people with autism.
1980) for massed versus distributed practice and by Berlyne (1960) on stimulus variation, the data suggest a new area for investigation in adapted physical education because this study is the first to involve students with autism.
Effects of initially distributed practice on rotary pursuit performance.
Performance and learning of a discrete motor task under massed versus distributed practice.
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In addition, parents can introduce into their children's daily routine distributed practices that promote learning in short bursts of time.
To better prepare children for school and enable parents to attend parent-teacher conferences with confidence, Cunningham suggests the following ways to incorporate distributed practices into a student's busy schedule: