disorder /dis·or·der/ (dis-or´der) a derangement or abnormality of function; a morbid physical or mental state.
acute stress disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by development of anxiety, dissociative, and other symptoms within one month following exposure to an extremely traumatic event. If persistent, it may become posttraumatic stress disorder
adjustment disorder maladaptive reaction to identifiable stress (e.g., divorce, illness), which is assumed to remit when the stress ceases or when the patient adapts.
amnestic disorders mental disorders characterized by acquired impairment in the ability to learn and recall new information, sometimes accompanied by inability to recall previously learned information.
anxiety disorders mental disorders in which anxiety and avoidance behavior predominate, i.e., panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, specific phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and substance-induced anxiety disorder.
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder a controversial childhood mental disorder with onset before age seven, and characterized by inattention (e.g., distractibility, forgetfulness, not appearing to listen), by hyperactivity and impulsivity (e.g., restlessness, excessive running or climbing, excessive talking, and other disruptive behavior), or by a combination of both types of behavior.
autistic disorder autism
; a severe pervasive developmental disorder with onset usually before three years of age and a biological basis; it is characterized by qualitative impairment in reciprocal social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and capacity for symbolic play, by restricted and unusual repertoire of activities and interests, and often by cognitive impairment.
binge-eating disorder an eating disorder characterized by repeated episodes of binge eating, as in bulimia nervosa, but not followed by inappropriate compensatory behavior such as purging, fasting, or excessive exercise.
mood disorders with a history of manic, mixed, or hypomanic episodes, usually with present or previous history of one or more major depressive episodes; included are bipolar I d.,
characterized by one or more manic or mixed episodes, bipolar II d.,
characterized by one or more hypomanic episodes but no manic episodes, and cyclothymic disorder.
The term is sometimes used in the singular to denote either bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, or both.
body dysmorphic disorder a somatoform disorder characterized by a normal-looking person's preoccupation with an imagined defect in appearance.
breathing-related sleep disorder any of several disorders characterized by sleep disruption due to some sleep-related breathing problem, resulting in excessive sleepiness or insomnia.
brief psychotic disorder an episode of psychotic symptoms with sudden onset, lasting less than one month.
catatonic disorder catatonia due to the physiological effects of a general medical condition and neither better accounted for by another mental disorder nor occurring exclusively during delirium.
childhood disintegrative disorder pervasive developmental disorder characterized by marked regression in various developmental skills, including language, play, and social and motor skills, after two to ten years of initial normal development.
circadian rhythm sleep disorder a lack of synchrony between the schedule of sleeping and waking required by the external environment and that of a person's own circadian rhythm.
an inborn error of metabolism involving abnormal structure or metabolism of collagen, e.g., Marfan syndrome, cutis laxa. Cf. collagen disease.
communication disorders mental disorders characterized by difficulties with speech or language, severe enough to interfere academically, occupationally, or socially.
conduct disorder a type of disruptive behavior disorder of childhood and adolescence marked by persistent violation of the rights of others or of age-appropriate societal norms or rules.
conversion disorder a somatoform disorder characterized by conversion symptoms (loss or alteration of voluntary motor or sensory functioning suggesting physical illness) with no physiological basis and not produced intentionally or feigned; a psychological basis is suggested by exacerbation of symptoms during psychological stress, relief from tension (primary gain), or gain of outside support or attention (secondary gains).
cyclothymic disorder a mood disorder characterized by alternating cycles of hypomanic and depressive periods with symptoms like those of manic and major depressive episodes but of lesser severity.
delusional disorder a mental disorder marked by well-organized, logically consistent delusions of grandeur, persecution, or jealousy, with no other psychotic feature. There are six types: persecutory, jealous, erotomanic, somatic, grandiose, and mixed.
depersonalization disorder a dissociative disorder characterized by intense, prolonged, or otherwise troubling feelings of detachment from one's body or thoughts, not secondary to another mental disorder.
depressive disorders mood disorders in which depression is unaccompanied by manic or hypomanic episodes.
developmental coordination disorder problematic or delayed development of gross and fine motor coordination skills, not due to a neurological disorder or to general mental retardation, resulting in the appearance of clumsiness.
disruptive behavior disorders a group of mental disorders of children and adolescents consisting of behavior that violates social norms and is disruptive.
dissociative disorders mental disorders characterized by sudden, temporary alterations in identity, memory, or consciousness, segregating normally integrated parts of one's personality from one's dominant identity.
dissociative identity disorder a dissociative disorder characterized by the existence in an individual of two or more distinct personalities, with at least two of the personalities controlling the patient's behavior in turns. The host personality usually is totally unaware of the alternate personalities; alternate personalities may or may not have awareness of the others.
dysthymic disorder a mood disorder characterized by depressed feeling, loss of interest or pleasure in one's usual activities, and other symptoms typical of depression but tending to be longer in duration and less severe than in major depressive disorder.
expressive language disorder a communication disorder occurring in children and characterized by problems with the expression of language, either oral or signed.
factitious disorder a mental disorder characterized by repeated, intentional simulation of physical or psychological signs and symptoms of illness for no apparent purpose other than obtaining treatment.
factitious disorder by proxy
a form of factitious disorder in which one person (usually a mother) intentionally fabricates or induces physical (Munchausen syndrome by proxy)
or psychological disorders in another person under their care (usually their child) and subjects that person to needless diagnostic procedures or treatment, without any external incentives for the behavior.
female orgasmic disorder consistently delayed or absent orgasm in a female, even after a normal phase of sexual excitement and adequate stimulation.
female sexual arousal disorder a sexual dysfunction involving failure by a female either to attain or maintain lubrication and swelling during sexual activity, after adequate stimulation.
functional disorder a disorder of physiological function having no known organic basis.
gender identity disorder a disturbance of gender identification in which the affected person has an overwhelming desire to change their anatomic sex or insists that they are of the opposite sex, with persistent discomfort about their assigned sex or about filling its usual gender role.
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable worry about two or more life circumstances for six months or more.
hypoactive sexual desire disorder a sexual dysfunction consisting of persistently or recurrently low level or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity.
impulse control disorders a group of mental disorders characterized by repeated failure to resist an impulse to perform some act harmful to oneself or to others.
intermittent explosive disorder an impulse control disorder characterized by multiple discrete episodes of loss of control of aggressive impulses resulting in serious assault or destruction of property that are out of proportion to any precipitating stressors.
learning disorders a group of disorders characterized by academic functioning that is substantially below the level expected on the basis of the patient's age, intelligence, and education.
lymphoproliferative disorders a group of malignant neoplasms arising from cells related to the common multipotential lymphoreticular cell, including lymphocytic, histiocytic, and monocytic leukemias, multiple myeloma, plasmacytoma, and Hodgkin's disease.
lymphoreticular disorders a group of disorders of the lymphoreticular system, characterized by the proliferation of lymphocytes or lymphoid tissues.
major depressive disorder a mood disorder characterized by the occurrence of one or more major depressive episodes and the absence of any history of manic, mixed, or hypomanic episodes.
male erectile disorder a sexual dysfunction involving failure by a male to attain or maintain an adequate erection until completion of sexual relations.
male orgasmic disorder consistently delayed or absent orgasm in a male, even after a normal phase of sexual excitement and stimulation adequate for his age.
former name for a mood disorder now known as bipolar I d.
or bipolar II d.
and often called bipolar d.
mendelian disorder a genetic disease showing a mendelian pattern of inheritance, caused by a single mutation in the structure of DNA, which causes a single basic defect with pathologic consequences.
mental disorder any clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome characterized by the presence of distressing symptoms, impairment of functioning, or significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, or other disability.
minor depressive disorder a mood disorder closely resembling major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder but intermediate in severity between the two.
mixed receptive-expressive language disorder a communication disorder involving both the expression and the comprehension of language, either spoken or signed.
mental disorders characterized by disturbances of mood manifested as one or more episodes of mania, hypomania, depression, or some combination, the two main subcategories being bipolar disorders
and depressive disorders.
motor skills disorder any disorder characterized by inadequate development of motor coordination severe enough to restrict locomotion or the ability to perform tasks, schoolwork, or other activities.
multifactorial disorder one caused by the interaction of genetic and sometimes also nongenetic, environmental factors, e.g., diabetes mellitus.
myeloproliferative disorders a group of usually neoplastic diseases possibly related histogenetically, including granulocytic leukemias, myelomonocytic leukemias, polycythemia vera, and myelofibroerythroleukemia.
nightmare disorder repeated episodes of nightmares that awaken the sleeper, with full orientation and alertness and vivid recall of the dreams.
(OCD) an anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent obsessions or compulsions, which are severe enough to interfere significantly with personal or social functioning. Cf. obsessive-compulsive personality disorder,
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
see under personality.
oppositional defiant disorder a type of disruptive behavior disorder characterized by a recurrent pattern of defiant, hostile, disobedient, and negativistic behavior directed toward those in authority.
organic mental disorder
a term formerly used to denote any mental disorder with a specifically known or presumed organic etiology. It was sometimes used synonymously with organic mental syndrome.
pain disorder a somatoform disorder characterized by a chief complaint of severe chronic pain which is neither feigned nor intentionally produced, but in which psychological factors appear to play a major role in onset, severity, exacerbation, or maintenance.
panic disorder an anxiety disorder characterized by attacks of panic (anxiety), fear, or terror, by feelings of unreality, or by fears of dying, or losing control, together with somatic signs such as dyspnea, choking, palpitations, dizziness, vertigo, flushing or pallor, and sweating. It may occur with or, rarely, without agoraphobia.
a category of mental disorders characterized by enduring, inflexible, and maladaptive personality traits that deviate markedly from cultural expectations and either generate subjective distress or significantly impair functioning. For specific disorders, see under personality.
pervasive developmental disorders disorders in which there is impaired development in multiple areas, including reciprocal social interactions, verbal and nonverbal communications, and imaginative activity, as in autistic disorder.
phagocytic dysfunction disorders a group of immunodeficiency conditions characterized by disordered phagocytic activity, occurring as both extrinsic and intrinsic types. Bacterial or fungal infections may range from mild skin infection to fatal systemic infection.
phonological disorder a communication disorder characterized by failure to use age- and dialect-appropriate sounds in speaking, with errors occurring in the selection, production, or articulation of sounds.
see under syndrome.
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) an anxiety disorder caused by an intensely traumatic event, characterized by mentally reexperiencing the trauma, avoidance of trauma-associated stimuli, numbing of emotional responsiveness, and hyperalertness and difficulty in sleeping, remembering, or concentrating.
psychosomatic disorder one in which the physical symptoms are caused or exacerbated by psychological factors, as in migraine headaches, lower back pain, or irritable bowel syndrome.
reactive attachment disorder a mental disorder of infancy or early childhood characterized by notably unusual and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness, usually associated with grossly pathological care.
rumination disorder excessive rumination of food by infants, after a period of normal eating habits, potentially leading to death by malnutrition.
schizoaffective disorder a mental disorder in which symptoms of a mood disorder occur along with prominent psychotic symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia.
schizophreniform disorder a mental disorder with the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia but of less than six months' duration.
seasonal affective disorder (SAD) depression with fatigue, lethargy, oversleeping, overeating, and carbohydrate craving recurring cyclically during specific seasons, most commonly the winter months.
separation anxiety disorder prolonged, developmentally inappropriate, excessive anxiety and distress in a child concerning removal from parents, home, or familiar surroundings.
1. any disorders involving sexual functioning, desire, or performance.
2. specifically, any such disorder that is caused at least in part by psychological factors; divided into sexual dysfunctions and paraphilias.
sexual aversion disorder feelings of repugnance for and active avoidance of genital sexual contact with a partner, causing substantial distress or interpersonal difficulty.
sexual pain disorders sexual dysfunctions characterized by pain associated with intercourse; it includes dyspareunia and vaginismus not due to a general medical condition.
shared psychotic disorder a delusional system that develops in one or more persons as a result of a close relationship with someone who already has a psychotic disorder with prominent delusions.
sleep disorders chronic disorders involving sleep, either primary (dyssomnias, parasomnias) or secondary to factors including a general medical condition, mental disorder, or substance use.
sleep terror disorder a sleep disorder of repeated episodes of pavor nocturnus.
sleepwalking disorder a sleep disorder of the parasomnia group, consisting of repeated episodes of somnambulism.
somatization disorder a somatoform disorder characterized by multiple somatic complaints, including a combination of pain, gastrointestinal, sexual, and neurological symptoms, and not fully explainable by any known general medical condition or the direct effect of a substance, but not intentionally feigned or produced.
somatoform disorders mental disorders characterized by symptoms suggesting physical disorders of psychogenic origin but not under voluntary control, e.g., body dysmorphic disorder, conversion disorder, hypochondriasis, pain disorder, somatization disorder, and undifferentiated somatoform disorder.
stereotypic movement disorder a mental disorder characterized by repetitive nonfunctional motor behavior that often appears to be driven and can result in serious self-inflicted injuries.
a subgroup of the substance-related disorders comprising a variety of behavioral or psychological anomalies resulting from ingestion of or exposure to a drug of abuse, medication, or toxin. Cf. substance use d's.
any of the mental disorders associated with excessive use of or exposure to psychoactive substances, including drugs of abuse, medications, and toxins. The group is divided into substance use d's
and substance-induced d's
undifferentiated somatoform disorder one or more physical complaints, not intentionally produced or feigned and persisting for at least six months, that cannot be fully explained by a general medical condition or the direct effects of a substance.