When information is presented in a disfluent
format, people tend to modify, and rely less on, their existing beliefs.
Twenty-two-month-olds discriminate fluent from disfluent
Each root node is viewed as a separate phrase; attaching disfluent
words to the root creates semantically incomplete phrases that are subsequently discarded.
In this paper we have argued that the problem of stuttering can usefully be viewed in these terms, as involving not merely the behavioral production of disfluent
speech, but also the construction, across time, of a sense of self that is problem-saturated and resistant to change.
Even if Jack works hard practicing appropriate behavior, his new behavior may be disfluent
and he may feel that he is not true to his "real self": his characteristic, rapid, automatic, effortless, context and stimulus-appropriate behavior (Fraley, 1998; Johnson & Layng, 1996).
student reads slowly and laboriously, stopping often to sound out words and rereading sections to regain comprehension.
In another California district the label is "clinically disfluent
Exploring the physical behaviors that accompany a client's disfluent
speech may also be valuable, as the client's self-awareness of concrete behaviors will be increased.
In contrast, the same person composed the following lengthier and more disfluent
utterance when only permitted to speak:
The data below show examples of this seemingly disfluent
production of polymorphemic words where there is a pause between the prefix and root.
We do know that almost everyone is disfluent
on occasion and disfluency is frequently seen in preschool age children.
Comparing the disfluent
speech of people who stutter to the fluent speech of nonstuttering2 individuals fosters an environment in which people who stutter are devalued.