In South America, this piscine diplomonad
was only described infecting the bile of Rhamdia quelen from Argentina (TANZOLA; VANOTTI, 2008).
histolytica, and Spironucleus Barkha nus (a diplomonad similar to G.
lamblia, because we have frequently compared the fermentation enzymes of this diplomonad with those of E.
describe a gene in the diplomonad Giardia lamblia that appears to be related to a gene for another mitochondrial protein.
Microsporidia and diplomonads, single-celled eukaryotes that live as parasites inside other cells, seem to carry genes resembling those that encode mitochondrial proteins.
Morphology of diplomonad flagellates: Spironucleus torosa n.
One explanation, the hypothesis preferred by Brugerolle and Taylor (1977) and by Vickerman (I 989), assumes the free-living status to be plesiomorphic for the diplomonads (Fig.
These purportedly primitively amitochondriate protists included the microsporidia, pelobionts, diplomonads, retortamonads, oxymonads, entamoebae, trichomonads, and other parabasalids.
There is evidence that many archezoan groups are secondarily amitochondriate (4-8) although the diplomonads and parabasalids have clung more resolutely to the base of the eukaryotic tree than other taxa.
These are the diplomonads
, the trichomonads, and the microsporidia, all groups that consist largely of parasitic species (8).
There are thus some uncertainties about microsporidia, but the EF phylogenies might seem to be consistent with the proposal, made by Cavalier-Smith (11, 12) before any molecular data became available, that diplomonads (including Giardia), parabasalids (including Trichomonas), and microsporidia could be primitively amitochondriate, and that a taxon Archezoa could be created for these protists.
Among the early-branching amitochondriate protists, diplomonads remained as possible candidates for being primitively amitochondriate.