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In the Nile Valley, secondary periostitis could be a part of the response to parasitic infection, given the prevalence of schistosomiasis and hookworm (Stephenson & Holland 1987; Tanaka 1989), even if the infection is not severe enough to provoke grossly detectable diploic expansion.
10,11) It is postulated that this is owing to a peak in the vascularity of the diploic system and the development of the frontal sinus between ages of 7 and 20 years.
6) This dynamic remodeling enlarges the diploic space.
They exhibit extreme frontal flattening and diploic expansion consistent with headbinding.
4,5) Thrombophlebitis may take place in any of the diploic veins in and around the temporal bone.
Also, the diploic Breschet's veins are valveless, which allows blood and infected emboli to flow easily from the extracranial orbital and sinus area to the intracranial cavity.