calving(redirected from difficult calving)
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act of parturition in a bovine female, and presumably in any animal that bears a calf as its newborn. See also block calving, ease of calving.
interval between calving and the next conception date.
yards, crush, chute, hot and cold water, shelter, all the resources necessary for capturing and restraining a cow while helping her to deliver a calf.
interval between calving and the first observed estrus. Data used as a measure of reproductive performance, especially dairy herds where block mating needs to be completed in as brief an interval as possible.
alternative to calving-to-first-estrus interval but does not take into account any deferral of mating for managerial reasons.
cows that are run on very extensive grazing may need to be under close surveillance by calving time. A small area of land can be enclosed or the herd herded into it—the calving ground.
any method of expressing reproductive efficiency on the basis of the number of calves produced. May refer to the average calving interval or to the percentage of calves produced by the mated group of cows.
see parturition induction.
damage to the uterus, vagina and vulva or surrounding tissues, especially obturator and sciatic nerves, caused by the parturition process.
the average time interval between successive calvings.
a small area specifically prepared with sand or limestone base and bedding of material such as rice hulls or sawdust, where all cows are located for calving. Allows intense supervision of periparturient and calving cows.
see maternal obstetric paralysis.
of a herd is a chronological list of calving dates. In seasonally calving herds a compact list indicates high fertility, a stretched out list indicates an indifferent fertility level.
see calf crop percentage.
a record of the reproductive efficiency of each dam in the form of dates, events and procedures related to reproductive function.
season of the year at which the herd, or other population of cows, calves, e.g. spring calving.
when the cows in a herd calve at about the same time. Thus spring calving, autumn calving. Usually used as a management tool to take maximum advantage of seasonal feed supplies or climate.
herd management system in which cows are mated so that some cows in the herd will calve at all times of the year thus maintaining a regular milk supply for a fresh milk supply.