dextroamphetamine


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Related to dextroamphetamine: dextroamphetamine sulfate

dextroamphetamine

 [dek″stro-am-fet´ah-mēn]
the dextrorotatory isomer of amphetamine, having a more conspicuous stimulant effect on the central nervous system than the racemic form of amphetamine; used as the sulfate salt in the treatment of narcolepsy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Abuse of this drug may lead to dependence.

dextroamphetamine

(dex-troe-am-fet-a-meen) ,

Dexedrine

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: central nervous system stimulants
Pharmacologic: amphetamines
Pregnancy Category: C

Indications

Adjunct management of ADHD.Narcolepsy.Exogenous obesity.

Action

Produces CNS stimulation by releasing norepinephrine from nerve endings. Pharmacologic effects:
  • CNS and respiratory stimulation,
  • vasoconstriction,
  • mydriasis (pupillary dilation),
  • Contraction of the urinary bladder sphincter.

Therapeutic effects

Increased motor activity and mental alertness and decreased fatigue in narcoleptic patients.
Increased attention span in ADHD.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Well absorbed.
Distribution: Widely distributed; high concentrations in brain and CSF. Crosses the placenta; enters breast milk; potentially embryotoxic.
Metabolism and Excretion: Some metabolism by the liver. Urinary excretion is pH-dependent. Alkaline urine promotes reabsorption and prolongs action.
Half-life: 10–12 hr (6.8 hr in children).

Time/action profile (CNS stimulation)

ROUTEONSETPEAKDURATION
PO1–2 hr3 hr2–10 hr
PO-ERunknownunknownup to 24 hr

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: Obstetric / Lactation: Pregnancy or lactation;Hyperexcitable states, including hyperthyroidism;Psychotic personalities;Suicidal or homicidal tendencies;Glaucoma;Some products contain tartrazine; avoid in patients with known hypersensitivity.
Use Cautiously in: Cardiovascular disease (sudden death has occurred in children with structural cardiac abnormalities or other serious heart problems);Hypertension;Diabetes mellitus;History of substance abuse;Debilitated patients;Continual use (may produce psychological dependence or physical addiction); Geriatric: Appears on Beers list. Elderly are at ↑ risk for cardiovascular side effects.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Central nervous system

  • hyperactivity (most frequent)
  • insomnia (most frequent)
  • restlessness (most frequent)
  • tremor (most frequent)
  • behavioral disturbances
  • depression
  • dizziness
  • hallucinations
  • headache
  • irritability
  • mania
  • thought disorder

Cardiovascular

  • sudden death (life-threatening)
  • palpitations (most frequent)
  • tachycardia (most frequent)
  • arrhythmias
  • hypertension
  • peripheral vasculopathy

Gastrointestinal

  • anorexia (most frequent)
  • constipation
  • cramps
  • diarrhea
  • dry mouth
  • metallic taste
  • nausea
  • vomiting

Genitourinary

  • erectile dysfunction
  • ↑ libido

Dermatologic

  • urticaria

Neurologic

  • paresthesia

Miscellaneous

  • physical dependence
  • psychological dependence

Interactions

Drug-Drug interaction

↑ adrenergic effects with other adrenergics.Use with MAO inhibitors can result in hypertensive crisis.Alkalinizing the urine (sodium bicarbonate, acetazolamide ) prolongs effect.Acidification of urine (ammonium chloride, large doses of ascorbic acid ) ↓ effect.Phenothiazines may ↓ effect of dextroamphetamine.May antagonize the response to antihypertensives.↑ risk of cardiovascular side effects with beta blockers or tricyclic antidepressants.St. John's wort may ↑ serious side effects, concurrent use is not recommended.Use with caffeine-containing herbs (guarana, tea, coffee) ↑ stimulant effect.St. John's wort may ↑ serious side effects, concurrent use is not recommended.

Route/Dosage

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Oral (Adults) 5–40 mg/day in divided doses. Sustained-release capsules should not be used as initial therapy.
Oral (Children ≥6 yr) 5 mg 1–2 times daily, ↑ by 5 mg daily at weekly intervals (maximum: 40 mg/day). Sustained-release capsules should not be used as initial therapy.
Oral (Children 3–5 yr) 2.5 mg/day, ↑ by 2.5 mg daily at weekly intervals (maximum: 40 mg/day).
Narcolepsy
Oral (Adults) 5–60 mg/day single dose or in divided doses. Sustained-release capsules should not be used as initial therapy.
Oral (Children ≥12 yr) 10 mg/day, ↑ by 10 mg/day at weekly intervals until response is obtained or 60 mg is reached.
Oral (Children 6–12 yr) 5 mg/day, ↑ by 5 mg/day at weekly intervals until response is obtained or 60 mg is reached.
Exogenous obesity
Oral (Adults and Children >12 yr) 5–30 mg/day in divided doses of 5–10 mg given 30–60 min before meals.

Availability (generic available)

Tablets: 5 mg, 10 mg
Sustained-release capsules: 5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Monitor BP, pulse, and respiration before administering and periodically during therapy. Obtain a history (including assessment of family history of sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia), physical exam to assess for cardiac disease, and further evaluation (ECG and echocardiogram), if indicated. If exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or other cardiac symptoms occur, evaluate promptly.
    • Has high dependence and abuse potential. Tolerance to medication occurs rapidly; do not increase dose.
    • Monitor closely for behavior change.
  • Geriatric: Not recommended for use in elderly secondary to risk for hypertension, angina, and MI.
  • ADHD: Monitor weight biweekly and inform health care professional of significant loss. Pediatric: Monitor height periodically in children; report growth inhibition.
  • Assess child's attention span, impulse control, and interactions with others. Therapy may be interrupted at intervals to determine whether symptoms are sufficient to continue therapy.
  • Narcolepsy: Observe and document frequency of narcoleptic episodes.
    • May produce a false sense of euphoria and well-being. Provide frequent rest periods and observe patient for rebound depression after the effects of the medication have worn off.
  • Lab Test Considerations: May interfere with urinary steroid determinations.
    • May cause ↑ plasma corticosteroid concentrations; greatest in evening.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Disturbed thought process (Side Effects)

Implementation

  • Therapy should utilize the lowest effective dose.
  • Oral: Sustained-release capsules should be swallowed whole; do not break, crush, or chew.
  • ADHD: Pediatric: When symptoms are controlled, dose reduction or interruption of therapy may be possible during summer months or may be given on each of the 5 school days with medication-free weekends and holidays.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Instruct patient to take medication at least 6 hr before bedtime to avoid sleep disturbances. Take missed doses as soon as remembered up to 6 hr before bedtime. Do not double doses. Advise patient and parents to read the Medication Guide prior to starting therapy and with each Rx refill. Instruct patient not to alter dose without consulting health care professional. Abrupt cessation of high doses may cause extreme fatigue and mental depression.
    • Inform patient that sharing this medication may be dangerous.
    • Inform patients starting therapy of risk of peripheral vasculopathy. Instruct patients to notify health care professional of any new numbness; pain; skin color change from pale, to blue, to red; or coolness or sensitivity to temperature in fingers or toes, and call if unexplained wounds appear on fingers or toes. May require rheumatology consultation.
    • Inform patient that the effects of drug-induced dry mouth can be minimized by rinsing frequently with water or chewing sugarless gum or candies.
    • Advise patient to avoid the intake of large amounts of caffeine.
    • Medication may impair judgment. Advise patients to use caution when driving or during other activities requiring alertness.
    • Advise patient to notify health care professional if nervousness, restlessness, insomnia, dizziness, anorexia, or dry mouth becomes severe. Pediatric: If reduced appetite and weight loss are a problem, advise parents to provide high calorie meals when drug levels are low (at breakfast and/or bedtime).
    • Advise patient and/or parents to notify health care professional of behavioral changes.
    • Inform patient that periodic holiday from the drug may be ordered to assess progress and decrease dependence.
    • Advise patient to notify health care professional if pregnancy is planned or suspected, or if breast feeding.
    • Caution patients to inform health care professional if they have ever abused or been dependent on alcohol or drugs, or if they are now abusing or dependent on alcohol or drugs.
    • Emphasize the importance of routine follow-up exams to monitor progress.
  • Home Care Issues: Advise parents to notify school nurse of medication regimen.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Improved attention span. Therapy should be interrupted and reassessed periodically.
  • Decrease in narcoleptic symptoms.

dextroamphetamine

/dex·tro·am·phet·amine/ (dek″stro-am-fet´ah-mēn) the dextrorotatory isomer of amphetamine; used as the sulfate salt in the treatment of narcolepsy and attention-deficit. Abuse of this drug may lead to dependence.

dextroamphetamine

(dĕk′strō-ăm-fĕt′ə-mēn′, -mĭn)
n.
A drug, C9H13N, that is the dextrorotatory isomer of amphetamine and is used in the form of its sulfate salt as a central nervous system stimulant to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. It is used illegally as a stimulant.
References in periodicals archive ?
Antidepressant agents and cytochrome p450 inhibition * Agent 2C9/2C19 2D6 Clomipramine No effect [down arrow]/[up arrow] Fluoxetine [down arrow]/[up arrow] [up arrow] [up arrow] [up arrow] Sertraline [down arrow]/[up arrow] [up arrow] Paroxetine No effect [up arrow] [up arrow] [up arrow] Citalopram/ escitalopram No effect [down arrow]/[up arrow] Bupropion No effect [up arrow] [up arrow] [up arrow] Venlafaxine No effect No effect Duloxetine No effect [up arrow] [up arrow] Mirtazapine No effect No effect Methylphenidate No effect No effect Dextroamphetamine No effect No effect * From reference 18.
11) Given the basic tenets of ethical behavior outlined above, let us examine the military's use of dextroamphetamine as an example and determine whether guidance governing the use of this compound is ethically appropriate.
Dextroamphetamine, or speed, is a dose-dependent stimulant with a proven history by the Air Force when used appropriately.
In the other study, researchers in Texas and California gave 12 stroke patients dextroamphetamine pills starting on average 1 month after their stroke.
Data from 1995 show that physicians treating children and adolescents wrote six million prescriptions for stimulant medications--methylphenidate (Ritalin[R]) and dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine[R]).
These include dextroamphetamine (street name: "dexies"), methamphetamine (street name: "crystal meth"), and, of course, cocaine.
15, 1990, New York Times summary of studies on this issue, Ritalin and dextroamphetamine "are not specific for hyperactive children; they have the same [calming] effect on everyone.
Relative efficacy of long acting stimulants on children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: A comparison of standard methylphenidate, sustained release methylphenidate, sustained release dextroamphetamine, and pemoline.
Treatment of narcolepsy includes several 15- to 20-minute naps a day and the daily use of moderate doses of stimulants such as dextroamphetamine.
The effects of dextroamphetamine, dimethyltryptamine, lysergic acid diethylamide and tetrahydrocannabinol upon pregnancy and the offspring.
SINCE THE spring of 2011, patients, doctors, and pharmacists across the country have been reporting shortages of Adderall, a combination of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine that is prescribed for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
The FDA is reporting current shortages of three drugs that are prescribed to treat ADHD: amphetamine mixed salts immediate-release tablets, dextroamphetamine tablets, and methylphenidate HCI tablets.