Metabolism

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metabolism

 [mĕ-tab´o-lizm]
2. the sum of the physical and chemical processes by which living organized substance is built up and maintained (anabolism), and by which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules to make energy available to the organism (catabolism). Essentially these processes are concerned with the disposition of the nutrients absorbed into the blood following digestion.

There are two phases of metabolism: the anabolic and the catabolic phases. The anabolic, or constructive, phase is concerned with the conversion of simpler compounds derived from the nutrients into living, organized substances that the body cells can use. In the catabolic, or destructive, phase these organized substances are reconverted into simpler compounds, with the release of energy necessary for the proper functioning of the body cells.

The rate of metabolism can be increased by exercise; by elevated body temperature, as in a high fever, which can more than double the metabolic rate; by hormonal activity, such as that of thyroxine, insulin, and epinephrine; and by specific dynamic action that occurs following the ingestion of a meal.

The basal metabolic rate refers to the lowest rate obtained while an individual is at complete physical and mental rest. Metabolic rate usually is expressed in terms of the amount of heat liberated during the chemical reactions of metabolism. About 25 per cent of all energy from nutrients is utilized by the body to carry on its normal function; the remainder becomes heat.
basal metabolism the minimal energy expended for the maintenance of respiration, circulation, peristalsis, muscle tonus, body temperature, glandular activity, and the other vegetative functions of the body.

me·tab·o·lism

(mĕ-tab'ō-lizm),
1. The sum of the chemical and physical changes occurring in tissue, consisting of anabolism (those reactions that convert small molecules into large), and catabolism (those reactions that convert large molecules into small), including both endogenous large molecules as well as biodegradation of xenobiotics.
2. Often incorrectly used as a synonym for either anabolism or catabolism.
[G. metabolē, change]

metabolism

/me·tab·o·lism/ (mĕ-tab´ŏ-lizm)
1. the sum of all the physical and chemical processes by which living organized substance is produced and maintained (anabolism), and also the transformation by which energy is made available for the uses of the organism (catabolism).
2. biotransformation.metabol´ic,

basal metabolism  the minimal energy expended to maintain respiration, circulation, peristalsis, muscle tonus, body temperature, glandular activity, and the other vegetative functions of the body.

metabolism

(mĭ-tăb′ə-lĭz′əm)
n.
1. The chemical processes occurring within a living cell or organism that are necessary for the maintenance of life. In metabolism some substances are broken down to yield energy for vital processes while other substances, necessary for life, are synthesized.
2. The processing of a specific substance within a living cell or organism: iodine metabolism.

metabolism

[mətab′əliz′əm]
Etymology: Gk, metabole, change, ismos, process
the aggregate of all chemical processes that take place in living organisms, resulting in growth, generation of energy, elimination of wastes, and other body functions as they relate to the distribution of nutrients in the blood after digestion. Metabolism takes place in two steps: anabolism, the constructive phase, in which smaller molecules (such as amino acids) are converted to larger molecules (such as proteins); and catabolism, the destructive phase, in which larger molecules (such as glycogen) are converted to smaller molecules (such as glucose). Exercise, elevated body temperature, hormonal activity, and digestion can increase the metabolic rate, which is the rate determined when a person is at complete rest, physically and mentally. The metabolic rate is customarily expressed (in calories) as the heat liberated in the course of metabolism. See also acid-base metabolism, anabolism, basal metabolism, catabolism.

metabolism

The sum of the processes by which a chemical or biomolecule is handled by the body.

EBM
The biochemical alteration of substances introduced into the body.

Physiology
The sum of all physical and chemical processes involved in producing (anabolism) and consuming (catabolism) bioactive compounds to maintain life.

Therapeutics 
The manner in which a drug is acted upon—taken up, converted to other substances and excreted—by various tissues.

me·tab·o·lism

(mĕ-tab'ŏ-lizm)
1. The sum of the chemical and physical changes occurring in tissue, consisting of anabolism, those reactions that convert small molecules into large, and catabolism, those reactions that convert large molecules into small, including both endogenous large molecules as well as biodegradation of xenobiotics.
2. Often incorrectly used as a synonym for either anabolism or catabolism.
[G. metabolē, change]

metabolism

The totality of the body's cellular chemical activity, largely under the influence of enzymes, that results in work and growth or repair. The ‘building-up’ aspects of metabolism are known as anabolic and the ‘breaking-down’ as catabolic. Metabolism involves the consumption of fuel (glucose and fatty acids), the production of heat and the utilization of many constructional and other biochemical elements provided in the diet, such as AMINO ACIDS, fatty acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and trace elements. The basal metabolic rate is increases in certain disorders, such as hyperthyroidism, and decreases in others. Anabolism can be artificially promoted by the use of certain steroid make sex hormones (androgens or anabolic steroids).

metabolism

the sum total of the chemical processes occurring in cells by which energy is stored in molecules (ANABOLISM) or released from molecules (CATABOLISM), life being maintained by a balance between the rates of catabolic and anabolic processes. All metabolic reactions occur in steps, in which compounds are gradually built up or broken down. Each step of the ‘metabolic pathway’ is catalysed by a different enzyme whose structure is coded by a specific gene, the end product being called a ‘metabolite’. A special energy-carrying molecule called ATP is involved in these processes. See BASAL METABOLIC RATE.

Metabolism

All the physical and chemical changes that occur in cells to allow growth and maintain body functions. These include processes that break down substances to yield energy and processes that build up other substances necessary for life.

metabolism

continuous series of chemical processes in the living body by which life is maintained. Nutrients and tissues are broken down (catabolism), releasing energy which is utilized in the creation of new substances for growth and rebuilding (anabolism). metabolite any substance produced by a metabolic process. See also energy systems.

metabolism (m·taˑ·b·li·zm),

n the combined sum of the chemical processes occurring in a living organism. It is separated into anabolism, a process that results in the consumption of energy, and catabolism, a process that releases energy.

me·tab·o·lism

(mĕ-tab'ŏ-lizm)
Sum of chemical and physical changes occurring in tissue, consisting of anabolism (those reactions that convert small molecules into large), and catabolism (those reactions that convert large molecules into small), including both endogenous large molecules and biodegradation of xenobiotics.
[G. metabolē, change]

metabolism (metab´ōlizəm),

n the sum of chemical changes involved in the function of nutrition. There are two phases: anabolism (constructive or assimilative changes) and catabolism (destructive or retrograde changes).
metabolism, basal,
metabolism, bone,
n the continual complex of anabolism and catabolism taking place in bone when it is in physiologic equilibrium. Bone is a highly labile substance that reflects the adequacy of general body metabolism. See also bone, alveolar, metabolism.
metabolism, cell,
n the complexity of anabolic and catabolic processes occurring within cellular structures.
metabolism, energy,
n the transformation of energy in living tissues, consisting of anabolism (storage of energy) and catabolism (the dissipation of energy).
metabolism, substance,
n the physical and chemical processes by which living organized tissues are produced and maintained.

metabolism

the sum of the physical and chemical processes by which living organized substance is built up and maintained (anabolism), and by which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules to make energy available to the organism (catabolism).
Essentially these processes are concerned with the disposition of the nutrients absorbed into the blood following digestion.

inborn error of metabolism
a genetically determined biochemical disorder in which a specific enzyme defect produces a metabolic block that may have pathological consequences at birth, as in maple syrup urine disease of calves, or in later life, e.g. in mannosidosis in calves. See also metabolic defect.

Patient discussion about Metabolism

Q. How is it possible to have permanent weight loss if dieting slows down metabolism? well, i know that eating less will have the body adjust to the new calorie intake and thus, no further weight loss. So how is it possible to have permanent weight loss if eating less doesn't work? Please give tips and suggestions, people who have successfully lost weight. thanks so much!

A. That is why you need to cycle every few weeks. Change things up and shock your body because it does plateau. But if you challenge yourself every so often you will see results continuously.

Q. How could one boost metabolism by diet? I am aware for long that metabolism is the cause for poor health and fitness.So how could one boost metabolism by diet?

A. Metabolism, if it is not erroneous genetically; then it can be controlled or increased by any diet. What matters is the timing and regularity you feed yourself which uses your hormones and enzymes in your body to do the task they are for. This timing and regularity depends on eating in same time regularly and working and sleeping too. To excite some hormones even if they had switched off their action in body, can be excited by exercise and feeding with small diets in regular short time intervals. To make all this happen, reduce on junk foods, please.

Q. How does coffee affect a diet? does it have an affect on metabolism? on losing weight?

A. Well, coffee can increase and to accelerate the beginning of burning fat during exercise (usually only after 20-30 minutes of exercise), but the overall effect is not that substantial. YOu should remember that it makes your kidney to produce more urine, so you should drink more.

More discussions about Metabolism