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Keywords: Krokodil; Substance use; Oral ingestion; Desomorphine.
Desomorphine or krokodil is one of the most-frequently consumed substances in some countries of northern Europe and the former Soviet Union, and is quickly expanding through the United States and South America.
Apparently economic factors are the determinants of krokodil use (Grund, 2002), as there is already proof of the home-based manufacturing of desomorphine in areas with high unemployment rates and economic problems, as is the case in some states of the United States, Mexico and Holland (Kwint, Kruizinga, Kaal & Bootsma, 2013).
While desomorphine is believed to be highly addictive, "all the other sequelae of krokodil are generally thought to be a result of phosphorus" and other substances.
To date, none of our forensic laboratories has analysed an exhibit found to contain desomorphine.
is a suspension that contains desomorphine as its psychoactive core agent and all other agents involved in the production process.
Assessing its risks, they wrote: "The active principle of krokodil is less a new drug rather than self-produced desomorphine accompanied by various toxic agents that emerge during the self-production process.
Desomorphine is also popular as "China White" or "Krokodil.
Over the past year, methamphetamines and desomorphine have been replacing opiates, as the prices of heroin and Subutex increased significantly.
According to doctors, desomorphine causes the strongest levels of addiction, and is the hardest to cure.
Desomorphine is easily produced at home by mixing codeine-based medications, widely available in Russia without a prescription, and household chemicals.
In a September 2010 speech, FSKN Director Ivanov stated that 35 kilograms of desomorphine had been seized so far during the year, a four-fold increase over the previous year.
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