Not only is it simply false that deontologists
fail to appreciate the costs to welfare of commitment to conformity with fairness, but also, if true, the charge applies equally to the economist.
One can acknowledge that deontologists
generally do (or believe
60) In that presupposition they admit a certain congruency with deontologists
and proportionalists, that is, that conflict among key directing guidelines is inherent to all methods of moral reasoning.
An understanding analogous to that of reductive deontologists
with respect to the virtues would have us hold that loving people are simply those who are disposed to perform independently grounded loving actions.
By contrast, Tom Regan, a contemporary deontologist
, argues that animals do have significant moral status, and that almost all animal research is immoral.
However, a deontologist
may also strongly consider natural consequences of actions.
But of course, any theory can face risk: Bestness fetishists can be uncertain about which outcome will be best, and absolutist deontologists
can be uncertain about which outcome will be right.
focus on following the right rules, i.
Indeed, for modern moral theorists, moral values can be compared on a common scale, duty for deontologists
and utility for utilitarians.
7) Because this article seeks to further the dialogue bridging theoretical ideas about duty and judicial interpretations, it shall not, except in passing, be concerned with another highly theorized point of view, that of deontologists
such as Ernest Weinrib who, as Professor Calnan nicely puts it, "argue that duty is an immutable moral obligation grounded in Kantian and Hegelian notions of abstract right.
That is, proponents of different views, be they utilitarians, deontologists
, virtue theorists, or others, would equally endorse this option.
In The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life, James insisted that individual conceptions of the good are in fact ultimate, that is, not subject to revision or external theoretical criticism (as, for example, Utilitarians or Kantian deontologists