# dental

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## dental

[den´t'l]
pertaining to the teeth.
dental assistant a specially trained health care worker who provides direct support to the dentist. An educationally qualified dental assistant may be delegated to do intraoral procedures that do not require the professional skill and judgment of a dentist. Although not all states require formal education for dental assistants, minimum educational standards include a program of approximately one academic year. Dental assistants may take the Certification Examination administered by the Dental Assisting National Board and earn the title of a Certified Dental Assistant (CDA). Some state boards of dentistry register dental assistants (RDA) after completion of a state-administered examination. Dental assistants may be members of their professional organization, the American Dental Assistants Association (ADAA), whose address is American Dental Assistants Association, 203 N. LaSalle St., Chicago, IL 60601.
dental caries a process of demineralization of tooth enamel, leading to destruction of enamel and dentin, with cavitation of the tooth. Decayed and infected teeth can be the source of other infections throughout the body, and decayed or missing teeth can interfere with proper chewing of food, leading to nutritional deficiencies or disorders of digestion. Called also tooth decay.
Causes. The causes are not completely understood, but certain facts are known. Tooth decay seems to be a disease of civilization, possibly associated with refined foods. Lack of dental cleanliness is also closely associated. Decay occurs where food and bacteria such as Lactobacillus species and Streptococcus mutans adhere to the surface of the teeth, especially in pits or crevices, and form dental plaque. It is believed that the action of the bacteria on sugars and starches creates lactic acid, which can quickly and permanently dissolve tooth enamel. The acid produced in just 20 minutes after sugar comes into contact with plaque is enough to begin this process. In most people this occurs whenever sweet foods are eaten; thus, eating of sweet or starchy foods between meals or at bedtime can be harmful to the teeth unless they are thoroughly brushed and rinsed immediately afterward. Decay that is not treated will progress through the enamel and dentin into the pulp, which contains the nerves. When it reaches the pulp, it can cause intense pain. There is no relief until the pulp dies or is removed or the tooth is extracted.
Treatment. The treatment for tooth decay consists of elimination of the pathogenic microorganisms that cause it, along with regular dental care. Enamel that has been destroyed does not grow back. The decay must be removed and the cavity filled. fillings (or restorations) may be of gold foil, baked porcelain, synthetic cements, silver amalgam, or cast gold inlays. When decay has reached the pulp, formerly extraction was usually necessary. Whenever possible, however, the exposed pulp is re-covered, or capped, and the tooth is then filled. New techniques of root canal therapy are saving many teeth that would formerly have been lost.
Prevention.
Flossing and Brushing the Teeth. Cleanliness is the best weapon against caries and periodontitis. Bacteria and food particles must be removed before the enamel is penetrated. This means thorough brushing regularly each day, preferably after every meal. If it is impossible to brush after every meal, it is helpful to rinse the mouth by swishing water vigorously back and forth between and around the teeth. When the teeth are brushed, food particles that lodge between the teeth should also be removed with dental floss.

The dental floss should be strung tightly between the two index fingers or between the bows of a floss holder. Flossing and brushing should be done in an orderly sequence so that no area is neglected. The usual pattern is beginning at the upper right, progressing to the upper left, and then from the lower left to the lower right. The floss is gently inserted between the teeth and pulled against the surface of one tooth to a point slightly under the tissue of the gum. It is then moved up and down for several strokes. The adjacent tooth is cleaned in the same manner.

The “sulcular” technique for brushing the teeth is so called because the bristles of the brush are worked beneath the free gingival margin and into the space between the tooth and the gum (the sulcus). To accomplish this the bristles are placed at a 45 degree angle to the gum line. Pressure is then used to move the brush back and forth in a circular motion. The brushing is continued around the mouth in the same pattern as the flossing.

A disclosing dye may be used to determine the presence of plaque on the teeth. Flavored mouthwash does not reduce plaque formation and is useful only to moisturize the tissues and improve mouth taste. (See also mouth care.)
Proper Diet. In order to help maintain healthy teeth, the diet should include all the essential elements of good nutrition. Tooth decay can be reduced by limiting the intake of certain forms of sugar, especially the rich or highly concentrated ones such as in candy or rich desserts.
fluoridation is another important means of preventing caries. Many communities whose water is lacking in an adequate natural supply of fluoride add the chemical to their water supply. In communities that do not have fluoridation, dental professionals may add a fluoride solution directly to the teeth or may suggest other means of obtaining fluoride protection.
Correction of Malocclusion. Another factor leading to tooth decay is malocclusion (poor position of the teeth), which results in faulty closure of the jaws and uneven meeting of the teeth. This should be corrected early because it also can lead to inadequate nutrition because of difficulty in chewing, and if it is severe enough to distort the face, it may have psychologic effects.

## den·tal

(den'tăl),
Relating to the teeth.
[L. dens, tooth]

## dental

/den·tal/ (den´t'l) pertaining to a tooth or teeth.

## dental

(dĕn′tl)
1. Of, relating to, or for the teeth: dental caps.
2. Of, relating to, or intended for dentistry: dental work; dental bills.

## dental

Etymology: L, dens, tooth
pertaining to a tooth or the teeth.

## den·tal

(den'tăl)
Relating to the teeth.

## dental

Pertaining to the teeth or to dentistry.

## den·tal

(den'tăl)
Relating to the teeth.

## dental,

dental abutment,
n See abutment.
dental alloy,
n See alloy.
dental amalgam,
n See amalgam.
dental ankylosis
(ang´kəlō´sis),
n See tooth, ankylosed.
dental anxiety,
n See anxiety.
dental arch,
dental articulator,
dental assistant,
dental auxiliary,
dental benefits organization,
n an organization offering a dental benefits plan. Also known as dental plan organization.
dental benefits plan,
n the plan entitles covered individuals to specified dental services in return for a fixed, periodic payment made in advance of treatment. Such plans often include the use of deductibles, coinsurance, or maximums to control the cost of the program to the purchaser.
dental benefits program,
n the specific dental benefits plan being offered to enrollees by the sponsor.
dental biofilm,
dental bonding,
n See bonding.
dental calculus,
n See calculus.
dental care,
n the treatment of the teeth and their supporting structures.
dental care for children,
dental caries,
n See caries.
dental caries susceptible,
dental cavity lining,
dental cement,
dental cementum,
n See cementum.
dental chart,
dental clinic,
n See clinic.
dental cooperative,
n a dental facility organized to provide dental services for the benefit of subscribers and not for profit. There is no discrimination as to who may subscribe, and each subscriber has equal rights and voice in the control of the cooperative. The operation of the cooperative usually rests with a lay board of directors elected by subscribers.
dental deposit,
n See calculus.
dental dysfunction,
dental enamel,
n See enamel.
dental enamel, hypoplastic,
dental engine,
dental equipment,
dental fissure,
n See fissure.
dental fistula,
n See fistula.
dental floss,
n a waxed or plain thread of nylon or silk used to clean the interdental areas; an aid in oral physiotherapy. Shredproof Teflon expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE), ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), or nylon flosses are still believed to be the best materials for removing plaque from the teeth.
dental fluorosis,
dental geriatrics,
dental granuloma,
dental handpiece,
dental health services,
n the sum of the diagnostic, preventive, consultative, supportive, and therapeutic dental care offered by the dental profession or that portion provided a member of a dental health plan.
dental health surveys,
n the use of questionnaires and oral examinations of a target population to determine the need or demand for dental care or the opinions or attitudes of patients or consumers.
dental history,
n See history.
dental hygiene armamentarium,
dental hygiene diagnostic model,
n one of four approaches to patient care. Its purpose is to arrive at a plan for recommended treatment by the systematic use of six steps that cover the major aspects of care, from initial inquiry to problem solving to patient education.
dental hygiene instrumentarium,
dental hygiene process model,
n one of four approaches to patient care, characterized by the documentation of a patient's expressed needs as they relate to a range of possible causes. Patient is questioned about various areas of concern, including overall health care.
dental hygienist,
dental identification,
n the process of establishing the unique characteristics of teeth and dental work of an individual, leading to the identification of an individual by comparison with the person's dental charts and records. Used in forensic dentistry.
dental implant,
n See implant.
dental impression material,
n See impression.
dental instrument,
dental insurance,
n a policy that insures against the expense of treatment and care of dental disease and accident to teeth.
dental jurisprudence
n the application of the principles of law as they relate to the practice of dentistry. See also jurisprudence, dental.
dental laboratory technician,
dental lamina,
dental material,
n See material, dental.
dental model,
n See model.
dental neglect,
n the purposeful denial of the minimum amount of oral health care or maintenance required to sustain functioning periodontium and teeth. The caretaker may exhibit a disregard for the patient's health and may focus primarily on pain relief for the patient. It is considered a warning sign of possible child or elder abuse.
Dental neglect.
dental occlusion,
n See occlusion.
dental papilla,
n See papilla.
dental pathology,
n that branch of dentistry that deals with all aspects of dental disease. See also pathology.
dental perioscopy
(per´ēos´kəpē),
n See endoscopy, periodontal.
dental pin,
n See pin.
dental plan,
n an organized method for the financing of dental care.
dental plaque,
n See plaque.
dental porcelain,
dental prepayment,
n a system for budgeting the cost of dental services in advance of their receipt.
dental prophylaxis,
dental prosthesis,
n See prosthesis.
dental prosthetic restoration,
dental public health,
n may also be called
public health dentistry. The science and art of preventing and controlling dental diseases and promoting dental health through organized community efforts. It is that form of dental practice that serves the community as a patient rather than the individual. It is concerned with the dental health education of the public, with applied dental research, and with the administration of group dental care programs as well as prevention and control of dental diseases on a community basis. See community dentistry.
dental pulp,
n See pulp.
dental pulp capping,
dental pulp cavity,
dental pulp exposure,
n See exposure.
dental record,
n a confidential document containing the clinical and financial data of the dental patient, including the patient's identity, pertinent history, medical and dental conditions, services rendered, and charges and payments made.
dental research,
n the formal scientific study of issues related to dentistry.
dental review committee,
n a group of dental professionals and administrative personnel that reviews questionable dental claims and can suggest policy decisions regarding dental care.
dental sac,
n a portion of the tooth germ consisting of ectomesenchyme surrounding the outside of the enamel organ, which produces the periodontium of a tooth. Older term is
dental follicle.
dental scaling,
n See scaling.
dental sealant,
n See sealant.
dental senescence,
dental service corporation,
n a legally constituted, not-for-profit organization that negotiates and administers contracts for dental care. Delta Dental and Blue Cross/Blue Shield corporations are two such organizations.
dental service, hospital,
n 1. the location of the dental facility within a hospital.
n 2. the array of dental procedures offered within a hospital setting.
dental splint,
dental staff,
n the personnel employed or engaged by the dental professional to conduct the assignable professional and management functions of the dental clinic, office, or practice.
dental stone,
dental tape,
dental technician,
n See technician.
dental unit,

## dental

pertaining to the teeth.

dental abscess
see alveolar abscess, malar abscess.
dental aging
telling the age of an animal by its teeth. Significant especially in horses, cattle and sheep. See also age determination.
the complete array of teeth in the form of an arch. There is an upper and a lower arcade, except in ruminants where the incisor sector of the upper arcade is absent.
dental attrition
occlusal wear of a tooth, as a result of tooth to tooth contact as in mastication; physiological rather than pathological.
dental bud
the dental laminae, focal thickenings of the oral mucosae of the developing embryo, invaginate to form dental buds, the early stage of the enamel organ of the embryonic teeth.
dental caps
a condensation of the oral epithelium of the embryo's dental lamina establishes the cap stage of the developing tooth.
dental chisel
see dental hoe (below).
dental claw
an instrument used often for scaling teeth in dogs and cats. It has a thick, sickle-shaped end.
dental cyst
may be odontogenic, containing cell rests of dental tissue, or dentigerous, in which all or part of a tooth is in the cyst. Causes a local swelling of the jaw which may be visible externally. Called also dentigerous cyst.
dental discoloration
occurs as a result of medication with tetracyclines when the teeth are still in the development stage, in cases of porphyrinuria, and in small discrete lesions in association with fluorosis, again when the poisoning occurred in the pre-eruption stage. Congenital absence of dentine and enamel, as occurs in calves, causes the teeth to look pink because of their vascularity.
dental fistula
caused by the spread of alveolar periostitis or abscess. The fistula discharges from the tooth root to the side of the face below the eye, the maxillary sinus or the nasal cavity. Called also malar abscess, gum boil.
dental fluorosis
dental formula
an alphanumeric system for listing the number, type (I = incisor, C = canine, P = premolar, M = molar), and position (upper or lower) of teeth: ox and sheep 2($$\hbox{I}^0_4\ \hbox{C}_0^0\ \hbox{P}_3_^3\ \hbox{M}^3_3)= 32; horse 2(\hbox{I}_3^3\ \hbox{C}_1^1\ \hbox{P}_3^4\ \hbox{M}_3^3)=42; pig 2(\hbox{I}_3^3\ \hbox{C}_1^1 \hbox{P}_4^4\ \hbox{M}_3^3)=44; dog 2(\hbox{I}_3^3\ \hbox{C}_1^1\ \hbox{P}_4^4\ \hbox{M}_3^2)=42; cat 2(\hbox{I}_3^3\ \hbox{C}_1^1\ \hbox{P}_2^3\ \hbox{M}_1^1)=30$$.
dental fracture/fissure
usually the result of traumatic injury. Causes great discomfort, unwillingness to close the jaw or chew; often the mouth sags open and saliva is allowed to drool.
dental hoe
an instrument commonly used in veterinary dentistry. It has a broad end with a beveled edge. Called also dental chisel.
dental impaction
failure of teeth to erupt out of the alveolar bone or through the gum.
dental interlock
the deciduous upper canine teeth erupt rostral to the lower canine teeth, thereby locking the mandible from further forward growth.
dental irregular wear
dental lamina
in the embryonic oral mucosa dental lamina form as local thickenings of the epithelium; they invaginate to form dental buds, later the enamel organ. See also dental bud.
dental luxation
includes loosening of teeth through to complete avulsion.
dental malocclusion
dental mirror
a small round mirror set at an angle on one end of a handle, used in dental examinations to reflect images from intraoral surfaces.
dental numbering systems
dental occlusion
see occlusion (2).
the thick layer of connective tissue that replaces the upper incisor teeth in the ruminant; a rostral projection of the hard palate.
dental papillary mesenchyme
the tissue which converts the dental cap stage of the growing tooth to the bell stage by covering it with enamel.
dental pellicle
a thin, acellular membrane of salivary proteins adsorbed to the enamel or cementum.
dental plaque
a dense mass of bacteria in an intercellular matrix, adhering to the surface of the tooth. It is important in that it initiates caries and periodontitis. A precursor of calculus. See also bacterial plaque.
dental pulp
the sensitive content of the cavity of the tooth carrying its nerve and blood supply.
dental records
contain the history of dental treatment given, generally recorded on diagrams or charts of the mouth, showing position of individual teeth, gingiva and occlusion.
dental resorption
may occur if the tooth pulp is traumatized, by osteoclastic action inside the tooth or outside, in the alveolar bone.
dental sac
the remains of the dental follicle at the apex of immature teeth.
dental star
the mark on the occlusal surface of a tooth, especially horse incisors, which is caused by the appearance of secondary dentine, contributed by the pulp cavity, as the tooth wears.
Dental star. By permission from Sack W, WensingCJG, Dyce KM, Textbook of Veterinary Anatomy,Saunders, 2002
dental tartar
see dental calculus (above).

Q. Can I treat dental Caries with antibiotics? I heard it’s a contagious disease, which means there are bacteria causing it. That means I can kill them by taking antibiotics no?

A. Your mouth has 500 different known bacteria in it. And a large amount of viruses and fungus. Taking antibiotics will not stop them from destroying your teeth. Maintaining good oral hygiene will, and with much less side effects…

Q. Can dental anesthesia trigger a heart attack? I have heart problems and about to go to the dentist to do a root canal.

A. Well, it's a very very rare complication, and one that dentists know how to and should avoid, but if the anesthetic substance reach a blood vessel it may cause problems with the functions of the heart (mainly the heart rhythm, less commonly the normal heart attack).

However, if you have heart problem, especially problems with the valves of the heart you should inform your doctor and your dentist - you may need to receive antibiotics prior to the dental procedure in order to prevent infective endocarditis (infection of the heart valves).

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/MEDLINEPLUS/ency/article/001098.htm
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/dentalhealth.html

Q. Dental Caries and Stress are related? Can it be possible that dental caries (cavities) be caused by stress? It seems to me that it can, because stress can cause all kinds of other health problems then why can't it also cause cavities. I have tried to find answers to question online, but have been unsuccessful. Sure would be great to know the answer to this.

A. if you understand the question "dental carries and stress are related?"

there are many factors that cause cavities ...

- poor hygiene
- poor diet
- malnutrition
- disease or illness
- and stress

it is well documented in the medical and alternative fields