density-independent factor


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density-independent factor

any factor, such as climate, that is not dependent on the density of population. Compare DENSITY-DEPENDENT FACTOR.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Kalman filter provides a powerful mechanism for estimating the parameters and detecting various sources of noise, such as parameter and system noise from density-dependent and density-independent factors, if the model is clearly specified.
Second, we now see that even if density-independent factors are not regulatory, they may nevertheless cause populations to switch back and forth between one type of density-dependent regulation (e.