A popular way for discerning the role of the renal sympathetic nerves in the regulation of renal function and haemodynamics is to denervate
one kidney (12,13).
The middle fossa approach to the anterosuperior surface of the petrous pyramid has been used by neurotologists to excise small acoustic neuromas, to denervate
the vestibular labyrinth, and to decompress and repair the proximal intratemporal facial nerve.
Since excessive activation of the renal sympathetic nerve has been an important pathological and physiological basis of hypertension onset and maintenance and renal sympathetic nerve fibers mainly access the kidneys through the renal artery adventitia, such anatomical characteristics determine that RDN could selectively denervate
most of the renal sympathetic nerve fibers.
The Paradise catheter simultaneously protects the renal artery with a water-based cooling balloon and circumferentially denervates
renal nerves with high intensity ultrasound energy.
When injected into a muscle, botulinum toxin effectively denervates
that muscle by temporarily blocking the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction.