In all examined males, the level of demasculinization
was scored on a scale from 0 to 3, with the observer being blinded with respect to dose group.
Overall, the most-exposed animals suffered not only demasculinization
, but also feminization, explains L.
Exposure of juvenile guppies to three antiandrogens causes demasculinization
and a reduced sperm count in adult males.
This effect could be a consequence of androgen exposure (at least 2-fold higher at sites 2 and 3 than at site 6), and the demasculinization
found at these two sites may be due to the combined effect of estrogens and androgens, which may have altered the regulation of gonadotropin-releasing factors and/or gonadotropins in the exposed fish.
In turn, exposure to high doses of DBP results in spontaneous abortion of rat pups, demasculinization
of fetal male rats, and testicular atrophy in rats, mice, ferrets, and guinea pigs (ATSDR 2001; Mylchreest et al.
Interestingly, early BPA exposure results in males whose profile is comparable with that expressed by females, suggesting a demasculinization
for this measure.
(failure to induce spermatogenesis) and feminization (induction and growth of oocytes) observed in the current study and previous work (Hayes et al.
of adult male snapping turtles was observed in three Lake Ontario sites (19), suggesting that wild turtle populations are being exposed to xenoestrogens.
and feminization of reproductive behavior, as well as feminization of neuroendocrine function, have been reported, but the only study that assessed CNS morphology did not find any evidence of altered sexual differentiation in the brain (76), so the mechanism for these effects remains uncertain.
Thus, as androgen receptor antagonists, the fungicide vinclozolin and the principal DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE have been demonstrated to induce demasculinization
The defect does appear to be rising in wildlife populations such as the Florida panther (11), and demasculinization
and feminization have been linked in other wildlife populations to environmental exposure to endocrine disruptors (7).
In a Canadian context, some have argued that masculinity is in crisis because there has been a demasculinization
or unmanning of Canadian men (Greig and Holloway 2012).