# degrees of freedom

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## de·grees of free·dom (d.f.),

in statistics, the number of independent comparisons that can be made between the members of a sample (for example, subjects, test items and scores, trials, conditions); in a contingency table it is one less than the number of row categories multiplied by one less than the number of column categories.

## degrees of freedom (df)

a statistical measure of the number of independent observations or choices among members in a sample. It is used in determining the statistical significance of findings during data analysis.

## de·grees of free·dom

(dĕ-grēz' frē'dŏm)
1. The number of planes (e.g., one, two, or three) within which a joint can move.
2. The variety of possible movement combinations that can occur within a segment of the human body.

## degrees of freedom (df)

the number of unrestricted variables in a frequency distribution, a factor that is of great importance in statistical testing. For example, in a simple CHI-SQUARED TEST the number of degrees of freedom is one less than the number of classes (types) of individuals, one d.f. having been lost due to the assumption that a certain proportion of each class is expected. Thus in testing a 9:3:3:1 ratio there are three degrees of freedom.

## de·grees of free·dom

(dĕ-grēz' frē'dŏm)
In statistics, number of independent comparisons that can be made between the members of a sample.

## degrees of freedom (df),

n.pl a statistic, based on the number of observations and groups in a study, that is necessary to determine statistical significance. One looks up the degrees of freedom and the significance level in a table of significance values to determine if the magnitude of the value obtained is significant. Used with the t-test, chi square, analysis of variance, and correlation.

## degrees of freedom

used to define statistical distributions of several tests, usually based on the number of data items less the number of parameters estimated.
References in periodicals archive ?
To conclude, they have shown that for any system in a factorizable state, it is possible to find different degrees of freedom that suggest a different factorization of the Hilbert space where the same state becomes entangled; for this reason they argued that every state, even for those factorizable, it is possible to find pairs of observables that will violate Bell's inequalities.
To examine the variability in income, we need to estimate only one parameter (that is, sample variance) for income (k), leaving the degrees of freedom of N - k.
bond]) and in the vibrational degrees of freedom ([E.
81 (the degrees of freedom was 29; p value was greater than .
For the entire set of 11,000 fitted models, the estimated number of degrees of freedom used to fit the model ranged from 8.
Hence ROMs for upper body motions with eight degrees of freedom are necessary in order to analytically generate the reach volume, and at the present time such data are not available.
In mathematical terms the degrees of freedom for the set are determined by the number of measured data.
Mathematically, the set of measured data points determines the degrees of freedom.
The result will be a complete inertial measurement unit with six degrees of freedom -- a 6DoF IMU -- on a few square millimeters of chip space.
Although combined hardware and control concepts have been developed that enable accurate force control in a single degree of freedom, the majority of tasks necessitates superior force control capabilities in multiple degrees of freedom.
The introductory chapter addresses dynamic response, formulation of the equation of motion, dynamic degrees of freedom, modeling, analysis, and testing.

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