# degrees of freedom

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## de·grees of free·dom (d.f.),

in statistics, the number of independent comparisons that can be made between the members of a sample (for example, subjects, test items and scores, trials, conditions); in a contingency table it is one less than the number of row categories multiplied by one less than the number of column categories.

## degrees of freedom (df)

a statistical measure of the number of independent observations or choices among members in a sample. It is used in determining the statistical significance of findings during data analysis.

## de·grees of free·dom

(dĕ-grēz' frē'dŏm)
1. The number of planes (e.g., one, two, or three) within which a joint can move.
2. The variety of possible movement combinations that can occur within a segment of the human body.

## degrees of freedom (df)

the number of unrestricted variables in a frequency distribution, a factor that is of great importance in statistical testing. For example, in a simple CHI-SQUARED TEST the number of degrees of freedom is one less than the number of classes (types) of individuals, one d.f. having been lost due to the assumption that a certain proportion of each class is expected. Thus in testing a 9:3:3:1 ratio there are three degrees of freedom.

## de·grees of free·dom

(dĕ-grēz' frē'dŏm)
In statistics, number of independent comparisons that can be made between the members of a sample.

## degrees of freedom (df),

n.pl a statistic, based on the number of observations and groups in a study, that is necessary to determine statistical significance. One looks up the degrees of freedom and the significance level in a table of significance values to determine if the magnitude of the value obtained is significant. Used with the t-test, chi square, analysis of variance, and correlation.

## degrees of freedom

used to define statistical distributions of several tests, usually based on the number of data items less the number of parameters estimated.
References in periodicals archive ?
The first value for degrees of freedom under t tests is 100 (reported by both SAS and SPSS).
1] share equally in the energy stored in the vibrational degrees of freedom.
Pearson and Hartley [5] tabulated, to 3D, noncentrality parameter [lambda] as a function of the level of significance [alpha], degrees of freedom v, and power 1 - [beta] for [alpha] = 0.
Our system consists of exchangeable and adaptable elastic force sensing modules that can be attached to state-of-the-art macrostructure robots and enable, combined with specific control laws, highly accurate force control along 4 independent degrees of freedom.
Mold Degrees of Freedom - This parameter is least understood.
Rather than chaos, what we have been experiencing so far in America is a whirlwind escalation in degrees of freedom, harshly straining the bonds of our traditional limits and expectations.
The result will be a complete inertial measurement unit with six degrees of freedom -- a 6DoF IMU -- on a few square millimeters of chip space.
If the variables are independent of one another and are not used in determining the expected values from which their variation is being measured, the degrees of freedom of the system is just the number of variables.
It has the same kinematic structure as the human body with 30 active degrees of freedom, albeit without fingers.
However, a reader points out that it is possible to get the answer 16 if the sequence corresponds to the number of degrees of freedom in increasing dimensions of space.
The five degrees of freedom participants must be 90-100 pounds, and the microgravity training chair participants must weigh 100-120 pounds and be under 5 foot 5 inches tall.

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