# decision analysis

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## de·ci·sion a·nal·y·sis

a derivative of operations research and game theory that involves identifying all available choices and the potential outcomes of each, in a series of decisions that have to be made about patient care-diagnostic procedures, therapeutic regimens, prognostic expectations; the range of choices can be plotted on a decision tree.

## decision analysis

Clinical decision analysis Decision making
1. An approach to decision making under conditions of uncertainty, involving modeling of sequences or pathways of multiple possible strategies–eg, of diagnosis and treatment for a particular clinical problem to determine which is optimal; DA is based on available estimates–drawn from the literature or from experts of the probabilities that certain events and outcomes will occur and the values of the outcomes that would result from each strategy. See Decision tree.
2. An analysis in which '…a problem is stated, assumptions concerning probabilities and utilities are made, and a conclusion is reached based on the results. If the reader (of the analysis) agrees with the structure, assumptions, and probabilities of the analysis, then he or she must agree with its conclusion.' See Algorithm, Critical pathway.

## decision analysis

A logical, consistent approach to making a medical decision when its consequences cannot be foretold with certainty. Uncertainties in medical practice are due to many factors (e.g., biological variation and limitations in the clinical data available for an individual patient). There are three steps in the analysis: 1. the consequences of each option is described schematically by the use of a decision tree; 2. probability is used to quantify the uncertainties inherent in each option; and 3. each possible outcome is designated by a number that measures the patient's preference for that outcome as compared with the others. After the last step is completed, each outcome is assigned a “utility” value in which 1.0 indicates a perfect outcome and 0 is the worst possibility. Decision analysis may be used to help members of the health care team and the patient make logical choices concerning management of illness.

## decision

a choice between a number of possible answers to a question.

decision analysis
a systematic approach to decision making under conditions of imperfect knowledge; a practical application of probability theory. Used to calculate the optimal strategy from among a series of alternative strategies. May be expressed graphically in the form of a decision tree (below).
decision making
making a decision can be done in three principal ways and many variations and mixtures of the methods: (1) rote, the decision is made on the basis of a set of rules and no selectivity is required; (2) intuitive, decisions are made on the basis of cerebrally stored information and reasoning systems which permit a fast response. The increasing complexity of veterinary clinical questions increases the probability of error; (3) decision analysis, a means of solving complicated problems by including all of the factors that could possibly affect the outcome of the analysis in a series of sequential questions. This gives each of the factors an opportunity of affecting the outcome. The chance of error by omission can be eliminated but the process is prolonged.
decision theory
the theoretical basis for decision analysis.
decision tree
a diagrammatic representation of the possible outcomes and events used in decision analysis. The questions to be asked in an analysis of a question are arranged as a series of nodes each with a yes and no branch, creating an arborization effect. The sequential steps proceed with each step depending on the decision made in the preceding step.
References in periodicals archive ?
Disclosures: The presenter reported having no financial conflicts of Interest regarding the decision analysis study.
Siedhoff reported having no financial conflicts regarding the decision analysis, conducted with university funds.
While simplicity is the strength of these decision analysis techniques, it is also their greatest weakness.
A final, important point to remember about decision analysis is that there really is no right answer.
Evaluation of the Dyspeptic Patient: a Cost-Utility Study" is an excellent example of how decision analysis can be used to give clinicians important insights into complex issues.
Decision Frameworks is a unique decision analysis training, consulting, and software firm founded by Ellen Coopersmith in 1999, a Petroleum Engineer by degree with over fifteen years' experience training and applying the practical use of decision analysis across the energy industry.
The rapid conversion of decision analysis knowledge into professional workflow and practice.
His extensive experience includes dozens of decision analysis projects in areas as diverse as investment planning and nuclear waste isolation.
The founders of SDG pioneered the field of Decision Analysis, which is now included in almost all business school curricula.
Craig Miller, managing director of TMG Templates, noted that "For the first time, Predix places benefits of decision analysis within the reach of lawyers and claim managers who do not have to possess the expertise.
We have significant experience using financial evaluation and decision analysis techniques that can add a tremendous amount of value and insight to the strategic decision-making process.

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