Chronic infection may also lead to formation of dacryoliths
and subsequent obstructive signs and symptoms.
6,7) Canaliculotomy and curettage of the dacryoliths are the gold standard in treatment.
All dacryoliths and sulfur granules were carefully removed by curettage using a chalazion curette.
A monitor shows the images obtained through the little endoscope in the probe, while an irrigation cannula and a laser or microdrill for treating stenoses and dacryoliths
(stones in the lacrimal sac) are available options.
1) In the remaining 60% of patients, there appeared to be no obvious preoperative cause of obstruction; of these patients, 65% were found to have dacryoliths
Actinomyces species were most commonly isolated (75%) and dacryoliths
were present in six of the cases.
The insufficient drainage is due to either congenital causes like punctal atresia, diverticulum or fistula from sac to nose or cheek, Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction (NLD), agenesis or acquired causes (1) like punctal stenosis due to age-related atrophic processes, chronic disease, dacryoliths
, allergy, systemic chemotherapeutic agents, postherpetic infection (Herpes simplex, varicella zoster), bacterial infection (Actinomyces, Chlamydia), Wegener granulomatosis, sarcoidosis, hay fever, atopy, etc.
Dacryoliths are calculi of the lacrimal system observed incidentally during dacryocystorhinostomy.
Dacryoliths were initially described by Cesoni in 1670.
It maybe inflammatory or noninflammatory, neoplastic, foreign bodies, dacryoliths
, infective (bacterial, viral and fungal), noninfective (atonic), acute or chronic form.
Mechanical lacrimal drainage obstructions may be due to intraluminal foreign bodies, such as dacryoliths
Moreover, eyelashes can be washed out into the lower drainage system where they can cause tear stagnation and act as a nidus for dacryolith