All patients underwent surgical treatment consisting of canaliculotomy and dacryolith
Moreover, eyelashes can be washed out into the lower drainage system where they can cause tear stagnation and act as a nidus for dacryolith
These include infectious keratitis, pigmented conjunctival lesions and a rare case of canalicular obstruction caused by a mascara-laden dacryolith
(15) or rheum (Figure 3).
formation was reported to occur in between 6 and 18% of patients with nasolacrimal duct obstruction who undergo DCR.
Chronic infection may also lead to formation of dacryoliths
and subsequent obstructive signs and symptoms.
A monitor shows the images obtained through the little endoscope in the probe, while an irrigation cannula and a laser or microdrill for treating stenoses and dacryoliths
(stones in the lacrimal sac) are available options.
1) In the remaining 60% of patients, there appeared to be no obvious preoperative cause of obstruction; of these patients, 65% were found to have dacryoliths
Actinomyces species were most commonly isolated (75%) and dacryoliths
were present in six of the cases.
The insufficient drainage is due to either congenital causes like punctal atresia, diverticulum or fistula from sac to nose or cheek, Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction (NLD), agenesis or acquired causes (1) like punctal stenosis due to age-related atrophic processes, chronic disease, dacryoliths
, allergy, systemic chemotherapeutic agents, postherpetic infection (Herpes simplex, varicella zoster), bacterial infection (Actinomyces, Chlamydia), Wegener granulomatosis, sarcoidosis, hay fever, atopy, etc.
It maybe inflammatory or noninflammatory, neoplastic, foreign bodies, dacryoliths
, infective (bacterial, viral and fungal), noninfective (atonic), acute or chronic form.
Mechanical lacrimal drainage obstructions may be due to intraluminal foreign bodies, such as dacryoliths