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amplification system

Physiology A generic term for any group of proteins that function in coordinated sequences, forming positive feedback loops for expanding the response to a low intensity signal
Amplification systems
eg factor Xa activating factor 'X' in the presence of factor VIII, Ca2+, and phospholipid
Augments B-cell response. See Alternative and Classic pathways
Amplifies T-cell response, ILs, kinins, lipid mediators and mast cell products


A general term for a range of proteins of low molecular weight that exert a stimulating or inhibiting influence on the proliferation, differentiation and function of cells of the immune system. Cytokines include INTERLEUKINS and INTERFERONS.


Chemicals made by the cells that act on other cells to stimulate or inhibit their function. Cytokines that stimulate growth are called "growth factors."


soluble messenger molecules, e.g. lymphokines (produced by lymphocytes) and interleukins (made by other white blood cells) that facilitate communication between different compartments of the immune system; examples include interferons, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage CSF); these cause biological effects in destination cell populations (e.g. activation, division or migration of destination cells) and often trigger inflammation

cytokines (sīˑ·tō·kīnz), regulatory proteins, such as lymphokines and interleukins that are produced by immune system cells and act as intercellular mediators in the modulation of immune response. Cytokines produced by recombinant DNA technology are administered to people to affect immune status.
References in periodicals archive ?
Cytokines and the brain: implications for clinical psychiatry.
The study limitations highlight the need for "a common set of inflammatory markers that must carefully be studied in order to understand the role of the cytokines in chronic psychiatric disorders and inform novel treatment decisions that may only be relevant to a subset of patients," he noted.
In addition to autoimmune diseases, elevated cytokines have been tied to depression.
This flood of inflammatory molecules, known as a cytokine storm, is thought to contribute to flu-related deaths in humans.
Catabolic cytokines induce target cells to produce more matrix-degrading products.
In addition to stimulating the production of secondary cytokines, such as the pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 and the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10, TNF-[alpha] is a primary inflammatory mediator that is responsible for many physiological changes such as hypotension, fever, tachycardia, oliguria and changes in consciousness in patients with septic shock (12,13).
Instead, researchers believe that HIV disease itself leads to an imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption, possibly via increased cytokine levels.
All the people--with or without chronic pain--had similar complements of three inflammation-causing cytokines, says Sommer.
Lethal H5N1 influenza viruses escape host antiviral cytokine responses.
These laboratory findings are consistent with the hypothesis that bacterially mediated induction of human [beta]-defensin-2 and other inducible antimicrobial proteins is disrupted in atopic dermatitis patients and that the culprit is high levels of the Th2 cytokines.
It is possible that the mitogenic effect of these contaminated blood collection tubes might not be obvious if only plasma cytokines are measured in samples that are rapidly processed after collection because endotoxin-induced production of TNF[alpha] and IL-6 by monocytes is time-dependent (6, 7).
The gene expression profiles confirm known elements of the pathology induced by HCB and extend them with insights about the involvement of other factors, including cytokines, chemokines, antioxidants, and other factors.

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