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amplification systemPhysiology A generic term for any group of proteins that function in coordinated sequences, forming positive feedback loops for expanding the response to a low intensity signal
- eg factor Xa activating factor 'X' in the presence of factor VIII, Ca2+, and phospholipid
- Augments B-cell response. See Alternative and Classic pathways .
- Amplifies T-cell response, ILs, kinins, lipid mediators and mast cell products
cytokinesA general term for a range of proteins of low molecular weight that exert a stimulating or inhibiting influence on the proliferation, differentiation and function of cells of the immune system. Cytokines include INTERLEUKINS and INTERFERONS.
Chemicals made by the cells that act on other cells to stimulate or inhibit their function. Cytokines that stimulate growth are called "growth factors."
cytokinessoluble messenger molecules, e.g. lymphokines (produced by lymphocytes) and interleukins (made by other white blood cells) that facilitate communication between different compartments of the immune system; examples include interferons, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage CSF); these cause biological effects in destination cell populations (e.g. activation, division or migration of destination cells) and often trigger inflammation
n.pl regulatory proteins, such as lymphokines and interleukins that are produced by immune system cells and act as intercellular mediators in the modulation of immune response. Cytokines produced by recombinant DNA technology are administered to people to affect immune status.