cytokine


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Related to cytokine: Cytokine storm

cytokine

 
a generic term for nonantibody proteins released by one cell population on contact with specific antigen, which act as intercellular mediators, as in the generation of an immune response.

cy·to·kine

(sī'tō-kīn),
Any of numerous hormonelike, low-molecular-weight proteins, secreted by various cell types, which regulate the intensity and duration of immune response and mediate cell-to-cell communication. See: interferon, interleukin, lymphokine, chemokines. See entries under various growth factors
See also: interferon, interleukin, lymphokine.
[cyto- + G. kinēsis, movement]

Most cytokines are small (less than 30 kD) soluble proteins or glycoproteins. Produced by macrophages, B and T lymphocytes, mast cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and stromal cells of the spleen, thymus, and bone marrow, they act nonenzymatically through specific receptors to regulate immune responses, in particular modulating the balance between humoral and cell-mediated responses. They are involved in mediating immune and allergic responses by regulating the maturation, growth, and responsiveness of particular cell populations, sometimes including the cells that produce them (autocrine activity). A given cytokine may be produced by more than one type of cell. Some cytokines enhance or inhibit the action of other cytokines. Their complex synergistic and antagonistic interactions fully justify the expression cytokine network. The first cytokines to be identified were named according to their functions (for example, T-cell growth factor), but this nomenclature became awkward because several cytokines can have the same function, and the function of a cytokine can vary with the circumstances of its elaboration. Later, as the chemical structure of each cytokine was determined, it was designated an interleukin and assigned a number (for example, interleukin-2 [IL-2], formerly T-cell growth factor). Cytokines have been implicated in the generation and recall of long-term memory and the focusing of attention. Some degenerative effects of aging may be due to a progressive loss of regulatory capacity by cytokines. Because cytokines derived from the immune system (immunokines) are cytotoxic, they have been used against certain types of cancer. Their clinical usefulness is limited by their short half-life and their wide-ranging and unpredictable side-effects.

cytokine

/cy·to·kine/ (si´to-kīn″) a generic term for nonantibody proteins released by one cell population on contact with specific antigen, which act as intercellular mediators, as in the generation of an immune response.

cytokine

(sī′tə-kīn′)
n.
Any of several regulatory proteins, such as the interleukins and lymphokines, that are released by cells of the immune system and act as intercellular mediators in the generation of an immune response.

cytokine

[sī′təkīn]
one of a large group of low-molecular-weight proteins secreted by various cell types and involved in cell-to-cell communication, coordinating antibody and T cell immune interactions, and amplifying immune reactivity. Cytokines include colony-stimulating factors, interferons, interleukins, and lymphokines, which are secreted by lymphocytes.

cytokine

Biological response modifier Any of a number of small 5–20 kD polypeptide signaling proteins of the immune system, which are produced by immune cells and have specific effects on cell-cell interaction, communication and behavior of other cells. See Biological response modifiers, Colony stimulating factor(s. ), Fibroblast growth factor, Interferons, Interleukins, Platelet-derived growth factor, Transforming growth factor β, Tumor necrosis factor.

cy·to·kine

(sī'tō-kīn)
Hormonelike proteins, secreted by many cell types, which regulate the intensity and duration of immune responses and are involved in cell-to-cell communication.
See also: interferon, interleukin, lymphokine
[cyto- + G. kinēsis, movement]

cytokine

intercellular PROTEIN or GLYCOPROTEIN signalling molecule, secreted by many cell types and involved in cellular regulation and proliferation. Cytokines exert their effects by binding to specific RECEPTORS on the membrane of target cells. They include GROWTH FACTORS, INTERLEUKINS and LYMPHOKINES.

Cytokine

A general term for nonantibody proteins released by a specific type of cell as part of the body's immune response.

antitumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF)

; anti-TNF-α agents; cytokine antibody to TNF-α used to control inflammation and vasculitis, and effect tissue repair in rheumatological diseases (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and psoriasis); indicated for rheumatoid arthritis patients who have not responded to at least two standard disease-modifying antirheumatism drugs, including methotrexate

cy·to·kine

(sī'tō-kīn)
Any of numerous hormonelike, low-molecular-weight proteins, secreted by various cell types, which regulate the intensity and duration of immune response and mediate cell-to-cell communication.
See: interferon, interleukin
[cyto- + G. kinēsis, movement]

cytokine (sī´təkīn´),

n a nonantibody protein, such as lymphokine. Cytokines are released by a cell population on contact with a specific antigen. Cytokines act as intercellular mediators in the generation of immune response.

cytokine

any of many small, secreted proteins such as erythropoietin, G-CSF, interferon, interleukins, that bind to cell surface receptors and transduce signals leading to the differentiation or proliferation of cells. See also monokine and lymphokine.
References in periodicals archive ?
Several studies have found high levels of proinflammatory cytokines in psychiatric patients, indicating an underlying infection or injury.
Goldsmith and his collaborators found that only the cytokine, IL-6, was significantly elevated, compared with healthy controls, for all three illnesses included in the meta-analysis (P < .
While cytokines are necessary for herding cells to the body's battlegrounds to fight infection, disease and trauma, sustained high levels of cytokines are associated with poorer health and such disorders as type-2 diabetes, heart disease, arthritis and even Alzheimer's disease and clinical depression.
A cytokine storm can result in increased severity of symptoms and, in many instances, to multiple organ failure and death.
com/research/sg4pzm/cancer_cytokines) has announced the addition of the "Cancer Cytokines Therapy Pipeline Analysis" report to their offering.
Immunoassay performance proved to be capable of yielding reproducible patterns when the cytokine panels were used to analyze replicate aliquots of a single synovial sample.
The aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in the plasma cytokine response of TNF-[alpha], IL-6 and IL-10 with two anaesthetic techniques--total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) using propofol/remifentanil versus balanced inhalational anaesthesia using isoflurane, in open cholecystectomy.
The reports further suggest that too much production of cytokines can stimulate an inflammatory response in which the accumulation of immune cells and fluid at the site of infection may prevent affected organs, such as the lung, from functioning properly, and may even cause death.
For example, interferon-[alpha] (IFN-[alpha]) is used to treat viral infections and cancer because it is a potent inducer of the inflammatory cytokine network, especially interleukin-6, Dr.
The presence of hemophagocytosis in these reports supports the cytokine dysregulation model of pathogenesis.
More importantly, the researchers found that lymphocyte cells of newborns exposed to higher concentrations of PCBs and DDE secreted fewer cytokines than those of control newborns.
Therefore, based on the promise of heightened immune responses in the presence of viremia in some patients (as measured by these cytokine assays), some thought that perhaps a good strategy to bolster HIV immunity would be to provide an opportunity for small, controlled quantities of HIV to be made--ostensibly to provide antigen and to drive the immune response.