cytochrome P450


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CYP11A1

A gene on chromosome 15q23-q24 that encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes, which catalyse reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. CYP11A1 localises to the mitochondrial inner membrane and catalyses the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of the steroid hormones.

cytochrome P450

Abbreviation: CYP
A group of enzymes present in every type of cell in the body except red blood cells and skeletal muscle cells. They are important in metabolizing substances normally present in the body such as steroids, fat-soluble vitamins, fatty acids, prostaglandins, and alkaloids. The P450 enzymes also detoxify drugs and a great number of environmental pollutants, such as carcinogens present in tobacco smoke and charcoal-broiled meat, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dioxin. Specialized types of cytochrome P450 are involved in the synthesis of nitric oxide.
See also: cytochrome

cytochrome P450

A family of enzymes responsible for the detoxification and elimination of foreign substances including many drugs by hydroxylation and increasing their solubility. The group has been intensively studied because mutations of the cytochrome P450 gene have been found to be associated with a number of diseases including Addison's disease, liver cancer and Parkinson's disease. Cytochrome P450 can also interfere with drug treatment. Selective inhibitors of aromatase-specific cytochrome P450 have been developed to assist in the treatment of breast cancer.

cytochrome P450

hepatic microsome responsible for biotransformation of local anaesthetic agents into simpler chemical compounds
References in periodicals archive ?
On the recognition of mammalian microsomal cytochrome P450 substrates and their characteristics.
Cytochrome P450 2D6 variants in a Caucasian population: allele frequencies and phenotypic consequences.
Cytochrome P450 2E1 activity is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species.
Moreover, the presence of Roundup in the incubation medium resulted not only in the decrease of the activity of the cytochrome P450 aromatase, but also to a lesser extent in a partial inhibition of its associated reductase.
Lau further showed that clopidogrel's antiplatelet effect correlated inversely with cytochrome P450 3A4 activity (Circulation 2004;109:166-71).
Comparative studies on the catalytic roles of cytochrome P450 2C9 and its Cys- and Leu-variants in the oxidation of warfarin, flurbiprofen, and diclofenac by human liver microsomes.
LIPIDOMICS is a tool for the identification of novel cytochrome P450 substrates and has applications as a complement to genomics and proteomics technologies in deciphering mechanisms underlying biological processes.
urinaria extracts may be effective in attenuating the APAP induced hepatotoxicity; cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 enzyme was chosen as a biochemical marker and may be an important factor by which to further explore the mechanisms of potential therapeutic relevance in our animal experimental model system.
Specifically, ADME Database includes metabolic information and kinetic parameter information on cytochrome P450, a drug metabolizing enzyme, and information on transporter substrates.
The new test will offer comprehensive analysis of the cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) genes, and it will identify the associated predictive phenotype (poor, intermediate, extensive, or ultra-rapid metabolizer).
Because the final reaction in the synthesis of estrogen depends upon a cytochrome P450 enzyme that is stimulated by prostaglandin [E.
Enzymes of the cytochrome P450 system are involved in the metabolism of several endogenous substrates and a broad range of foreign compounds, such as drugs, environmental pollutants, and carcinogens (1).

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