cyclooxygenases (sīˈ·klō·kˈ·s·je·nāˑ·ss), enzymes that are rate-limiting in the production of thromboxanes and prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. The constitutive form of these proteins is essential for maintaining homeostasis while the indu-cible form is expressed in leukocytes in response to an inflammatory stimulus, resulting in production of prostanoids. The activity of cyclooxygenases is inhibited by antiinflammatory drugs, such as aspirin, and corticosteroids interfere with gene expression of the inducible form of the enzyme.
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Cyclooxygenases are known for their role in synthesis of prostaglandins which have gastro protective activity.
Table 2: Expression of renal cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and -2) in rats with PUUO at 9 and 15 weeks (mean ± SEM) [Table omitted]
Comparative pathophysiology and toxicology of cyclooxygenases.
Since, the aging-related increased formation of ROS is reduced in the presence of inhibitors of either cyclooxygenases or eNOS, it implies the involvement of cyclooxygenases and uncoupled eNOS.
Nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and cyclooxygenases (COX) are considered to have a significant role in the inflammatory milieu occurring in acute stroke.
They also discuss in vivo disease models used to study the role of cyclooxygenases in gastrointestinal injury, inflammation, and pain.
25] Prostaglandins are synthesized from arachidonic acid by the action of cyclooxygenases (COXs).
Modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism by curcumin and related beta-diketone derivatives: effects on cytosolic phospholipase A(2), cyclooxygenases and 5-lipoxygenase.
The inhibition of various enzymes of the arachidonic acid cascade, among these the lipoxygenases and the cyclooxygenases, might be a possible target.
Signaling pathways regulating aromatase and cyclooxygenases in normal and malignant breast cells.
Nutritional and botanical modulation of the inflammatory cascade--eicosanoids, cyclooxygenases, and lipoxygenases--as an adjunct in cancer therapy.
Lipsky LP, Abramson SB, Crofford L, Dubois RN, Simon LS, Van de Putte LB (1998) The classification of cyclooxygenases inhibitors.

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