Cyanobacteria

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Cyanobacteria

 
the blue-green bacteria (formerly called blue-green algae), a subgroup of the kingdom Procaryotae, unicellular or filamentous phototrophic organisms that use water as an electron donor and produce oxygen in the presence of light. They are the only organisms that fix both carbon dioxide (in the presence of light) and nitrogen. Most species are photosynthetic and many are strong nitrogen fixers. Several species are common causes of water pollution and are often used as indicators of eutrophication of lakes and streams.

Cy·a·no·bac·te·ri·a

(sī'ă-nō-bak-tēr'ē-ă),
A division of the kingdom Prokaryotae consisting of unicellular or filamentous bacteria that are either nonmotile or possess a gliding motility, reproduce by binary fission, and perform photosynthesis with the production of oxygen. These blue-green bacteria were formerly referred to as blue-green algae.
Synonym(s): Cyanophyceae

Cyanobacteria

/Cy·a·no·bac·te·ria/ (si″ah-no-bak-tēr´e-ah) a subgroup of bacteria comprising the blue-green bacteria (blue-green algae), which are photosynthetic and also fix nitrogen.

cyanobacteria

[sī′ənōbaktir′ē·ə]
Etymology: Gk, kyanos, blue + bacterion, small staff
blue-green bacteria, unicellular or filamentous organisms that fix both carbon dioxide (in the presence of light) and nitrogen. Several species are common causes of water pollution and cause cyanobacteria poisoning. Formerly called blue-green algae.

Cy·a·no·bac·te·ri·a

(sī'ă-nō-bak-tēr'ē-ă)
A division of the kingdom Prokaryotae consisting of unicellular or filamentous bacteria that are either nonmotile or possess a gliding motility, reproduce by binary fission, and perform photosynthesis with the production of oxygen.
Synonym(s): Cyanophyceae.

cyanobacteria (formerly blue-green algae)

a PHYLUM within the DOMAIN BACTERIA (see CLASSIFICATION). Cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic PROKARYOTES capable of OXYGENIC PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Some are also capable of ANOXYGENIC PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They were formerly called blue-green algae mainly because of the colour of many species, caused by a blue pigment called phycocyanin. They may also contain a red pigment called phycoerythrin. All members contain chlorophyll a. However, Prochloron additionally contains chlorophyll b (see CHLOROPHYLL). The cyanobacteria were possibly the first ORGANISMS on the earth to produce OXYGEN by photosynthesis. There is fossil evidence for their occurrence 3.5 x 109 years ago. The CELL WALL is analogous to that of Gram-negative BACTERIA (see GRAM'S STAIN and the LIGHT REACTIONS of photosynthesis occur on the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE system, within the cell. Other structures in the cell include carboxysomes, polyphosphate bodies as a PHOSPHATE reserve, and gas VACUOLES for buoyancy Some cyanobacteria are UNICELLULAR, others are filamentous (see FILAMENT (2)). They reproduce by fission or fragmentation. A number of species shows CELLULAR DIFFERENTIATION, with the formation of, for example, AKINETES, and specialized cells for NITROGEN FIXATION, called heterocysts. Cyanobacteria are widespread, being found in both terrestrial and aquatic environments that are illuminated. Some live in very inhospitable environments such as hot springs, where the temperature is in excess of 85 °C. They are responsible for much of the photosynthetic oxygen evolution in oceans and contribute to productivity through CARBON DIOXIDE fixation (see DARK REACTIONS) and NITROGEN FIXATION. Sometimes they accumulate in large numbers as BLOOMS on the surface of lakes, reservoirs and so on. These blooms may produce TOXINS.

cyanobacteria

photosynthezing bacteria of widely varying form and inhabiting many environments including marine and fresh water. They produce a green pigment which changes color to blue or blue-green when the bacteria are stressed or dying. Formerly classified as algae (division Cyanophyta) and known as blue-green algae. Some species are non-toxic, some produce hepatoxins, others produce neurotoxins, and still others produce dermatoxins. Toxic species include Anabaena, Anabaenopsis, Aphanizomenon, Coelosphaerium, Cylindrospermopsis, Fischerella, Gloeotrichia, Gomphosphaeria, Haplosiphon, Hormothamnion, Lyngyba, Microcystis, Nodularia, Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Pseudoanabaena, Schizothrix, Seytonema, Synechococcus, Tolypothrix, Trichodesmium. Called also cyanophytes. See also algal poisoning.
References in periodicals archive ?
75 [micro]m) standard freshwater for 48 h prior to exposure to cyanobacterial cultures, without being fed.
Cyanobacterial tufa calcification in two freshwater streams: ambient environment, chemical thresholds and biological processes, Sedimentary Geology 126(1-4): 103-124.
25) The mechanism for the production of BMAA and subsequent accumulation in the tissue of sharks and humans is as follows: (i) cyanobacteria, which live naturally in the marine environment, produce BMAA; (ii) the prevalence of cyanobacteria (and consequently the prevalence of BMAA) has increased in recent decades in the form of cyanobacterial blooms due to "nutrient loading from agricultural and industrial runoff, from animal wastes, sewage, groundwater inflow and atmospheric deposition;" (iv) cyanobacteria bioaccumulate in the marine foodweb, and are found in high concentrations in apex predators, like sharks; (v) humans consuming apex predators will in turn accumulate BMAA in their tissues.
Patellamide A and C biosynthesis by a microcin-like pathway in Prochloron didemni, the cyanobacterial symbiont of Lissoclinum patella.
The only documented and scientifically substantiated human deaths due to cyanobacterial toxins have been due to exposure during dialysis.
The same authors state that cyanobacterial genera are mainly the coccoid types and this was also confirmed by our results.
Another 17 studies consider such topics as lessons from a simple system on decision making in living cells, the cyanobacterial circadian system from biophysics to bioevolution, kinesin assembly and movement in cells, stochastic conformational pumping as a mechanism for free-energy transduction by molecules, and protein folding at the exit tunnel.
Wilde SB, Murphy TM, Hope CP, Habrun SK, Kempton J, Birrenkott A, Wiley F, Bowermman WW, and Lewitus AJ: Avian vacuolar myelinopathy linked to exotic aquatic plants and a novel cyanobacterial species.
pesticides, cyanobacterial toxins) with toxic potential relevant to drinking water exposure and that can be found in water need to be assessed to determine site-specific relevance.
Dobretsov studied cyanobacterial mats from Oman's hot springs together Dr.