cyanide poisoning


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cyanide

 [si´ah-nīd]
a binary compound containing the radical CN— (cyanogen); since cyanide prevents tissue use of oxygen, most of its compounds are deadly poisons. Some inorganic compounds, such as cyanide salts, potassium cyanide, and sodium cyanide, are important in industry for extracting gold and silver from their ores or in electroplating, and other cyanide compounds are used in manufacture of synthetic rubber and textiles or as pesticides.
cyanide poisoning poisoning by cyanide or one of its compounds; most cyanide compounds are deadly poisons. Characteristics include nausea without vomiting, dizziness, convulsions, opisthotonos, and death from respiratory paralysis.

Treatment varies according to the nature of the poison. In the case of swallowed poison like hydrocyanic acid, the poison itself will cause vomiting. If the victim is able to swallow, milk or water may be given. A large dose of hydrocyanic acid will cause almost instant death. If a gas such as hydrogen cyanide has been inhaled, the victim should be taken into open air and given artificial respiration. Sodium thiosulfate and sodium nitrate are used as antidotes to cyanide poisoning.

While poisoning may occur following exposure to any substance that releases cyanide ions, it can also occur concurrently if another toxic ion is present (for example, with mercuric cyanide). In such a situation, ironically the symptoms of toxicity may change to those of the second ion when the antidote to cyanide is used.

cy·a·nide poi·son·ing

a fairly common disease of herbivorous animals, caused by eating cyanogenic plants containing glucosides that are hydrolyzed, yielding hydrocyanic acid; some farm chemicals (for example, fungicides, insecticides) may cause cyanide poisoning; hydrogen cyanide and its salts are extremely poisonous to humans, either by inhalation or by ingestion.

cyanide poisoning

[sī′ənid, -nīd]
Etymology: Gk, kyanos, blue
poisoning resulting from the ingestion or inhalation of cyanide from such substances as bitter almond oil, wild cherry syrup, prussic acid, hydrocyanic acid, or potassium or sodium cyanide. Characterized by impaired intracellular oxygenation, symptoms include tachycardia, drowsiness, seizures, headache, apnea, and cardiac arrest. Death may result within 1 to 15 minutes.

cyanide poisoning

Poisoning with a salt of hydrocyanic acid such as potassium cyanide or sodium cyanide or with hydrogen cyanide or its solution, prussic acid. Cyanide interferes with vital enzyme systems. Poisoning causes a rapid pulse, headache, convulsions and coma and may be rapidly fatal.
References in periodicals archive ?
It is also reported that the most common characteristics of cyanide poisoning in animals are dark muscle tissue, congestion or hemorrhage of the lungs, patechination of the tracheal mucosa and a frothy bloody damage from the mouth and nostrils [27].
13] David Yen, Jeffrey Tsai, Lee-Min Wang, Wei-Fong Kao, Sheng-Chuan Hu, Chen-Hsen Lee, Jou-Fang Deng, The Clinical Experience of Acute Cyanide Poisoning, The American Journal of Emergency Medicine 13, Issue 5 (1995), 524-528
Cyanokit(R) is indicated for the treatment of known or suspected cyanide poisoning.
A day later a customer is rushed to hospital with cyanide poisoning symptoms.
Cyanide poisoning may be the stuff of murder mysteries, but it seems an unlikely way for tropical fish or coral reefs to die.
Prussic acid, or cyanide poisoning can occur when grazing immature sudangrasses and sorghum sudans," he warned, "but most of the time it comes from grazing newly frosted material or the very lush young growth after the tops have been frosted.
IN THE LONGEST SENTENCE EVER IMPOSED for an environmental crime, a federal judge has ordered an Idaho man to serve 17 years in prison for crimes that left a 20-year-old employee with permanent brain damage from cyanide poisoning.
Unfortunately the nature of cyanide poisoning is that it depends upon the dose.
At one VA location, the entire drug supply of amyl nitrate, an inhaled drug used as an antidote for cyanide poisoning, had expired dates," according to the GAO.
In addition to treatment for the bends, the society includes the following uses as "proven," with the therapy used as an adjunct in most cases: osteoradionecrosis, carbon monoxide poisoning, gas gangrene, gas embolisms, crush injuries, problem wounds, cyanide poisoning, cerebral edema and several hard-to-treat bone, fungal and soft-tissue infections.
Department of Health and Human Services Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority to develop a nasal-delivery, first-line treatment system to combat cyanide poisoning.
He said: eIu The pro- UCC lobbysuccessfully influenced the central and state governments to stop the antidote by falsely denying the possibility of cyanide poisoning.