cyanide poisoning


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cyanide

 [si´ah-nīd]
a binary compound containing the radical CN— (cyanogen); since cyanide prevents tissue use of oxygen, most of its compounds are deadly poisons. Some inorganic compounds, such as cyanide salts, potassium cyanide, and sodium cyanide, are important in industry for extracting gold and silver from their ores or in electroplating, and other cyanide compounds are used in manufacture of synthetic rubber and textiles or as pesticides.
cyanide poisoning poisoning by cyanide or one of its compounds; most cyanide compounds are deadly poisons. Characteristics include nausea without vomiting, dizziness, convulsions, opisthotonos, and death from respiratory paralysis.

Treatment varies according to the nature of the poison. In the case of swallowed poison like hydrocyanic acid, the poison itself will cause vomiting. If the victim is able to swallow, milk or water may be given. A large dose of hydrocyanic acid will cause almost instant death. If a gas such as hydrogen cyanide has been inhaled, the victim should be taken into open air and given artificial respiration. Sodium thiosulfate and sodium nitrate are used as antidotes to cyanide poisoning.

While poisoning may occur following exposure to any substance that releases cyanide ions, it can also occur concurrently if another toxic ion is present (for example, with mercuric cyanide). In such a situation, ironically the symptoms of toxicity may change to those of the second ion when the antidote to cyanide is used.

cy·a·nide poi·son·ing

a fairly common disease of herbivorous animals, caused by eating cyanogenic plants containing glucosides that are hydrolyzed, yielding hydrocyanic acid; some farm chemicals (for example, fungicides, insecticides) may cause cyanide poisoning; hydrogen cyanide and its salts are extremely poisonous to humans, either by inhalation or by ingestion.

cyanide poisoning

[sī′ənid, -nīd]
Etymology: Gk, kyanos, blue
poisoning resulting from the ingestion or inhalation of cyanide from such substances as bitter almond oil, wild cherry syrup, prussic acid, hydrocyanic acid, or potassium or sodium cyanide. Characterized by impaired intracellular oxygenation, symptoms include tachycardia, drowsiness, seizures, headache, apnea, and cardiac arrest. Death may result within 1 to 15 minutes.

cyanide poisoning

Poisoning with a salt of hydrocyanic acid such as potassium cyanide or sodium cyanide or with hydrogen cyanide or its solution, prussic acid. Cyanide interferes with vital enzyme systems. Poisoning causes a rapid pulse, headache, convulsions and coma and may be rapidly fatal.
References in periodicals archive ?
5 g as an enema on a daily basis, showed signs of cyanide poisoning (vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, tachypnea and cyanosis), not immediately but following the second rectal dose (Ortega and Creek 1978).
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Cyanokit is indicated for the treatment of known or suspected cyanide poisoning is administered intravenously.
After an insurance investigator dies from suspected cyanide poisoning, his work replacement causes problems for Leo when she accuses him of fraud.