cupulolithiasis

cupulolithiasis

 [ku″pu-lo-lĭ-thi´ah-sis]
the presence of calculi in the cupula of the posterior semicircular duct.

be·nign par·ox·ys·mal positional ver·ti·go

a recurrent, brief form of positional vertigo occurring in clusters; believed to result from displaced remnants of utricular otoconia into the semicircular ducts, usually the posterior.

cupulolithiasis

/cu·pu·lo·li·thi·a·sis/ (ku″pu-lo-lĭ-thi´ah-sis) the presence of calculi in the cupula of the posterior semicircular duct.

cupulolithiasis

[kyo̅o̅′pyoo͡lōlithī′əsis]
Etymology: L, cupula, little cup; Gk, lithos, stone
a severe, long-lasting vertigo brought on by movement of the head to certain positions. Among the many possible causes are otitis media, ear surgery, and injury to the inner ear. In addition to extreme dizziness, signs are nausea, vomiting, and ataxia. There is no treatment except avoidance of the offending head positions. See also positional vertigo.

benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

A form of transient vertigo caused by utricular degeneration which liberates otoconia: otoconia drift into the lower part of the vestibule, the ampulla of the posterior semicircular canal; once there, the otoconia alter the cupola’s specific gravity, changing its response characteristics from a purely angular acceleration detector to one that is stimulated by linear movements and gravity.
 
Incidence
BPPV is a common form of vertigo, more common in older adults.
 
Aetiology
Closed head injury, vestibular neuronitis, infections, post-stapedectomy.
 
Diagnosis
History—e.g., single bouts of severe vertigo of < 1 min in duration after a change in head position, often more severe on one side, when bending, looking to take an object off a shelf or tilting the head back; the episodes are clustered in time and separated by remissions lasting months or more; Hallpike maneuver.
 
Management
Particle repositioning maneuver; occlusion of affected canal using a bone chop:fibrinogen glue plug; most BPPV resolves spontaneously within several months of onset, especially following head injury; persistent, near-disabling symptoms may mandate surgery: singular neurectomy, vestibular neurectomy or posterior semicircular canal occlusion.

cupulolithiasis

the presence of calculi in the cupula of the posterior semicircular duct.
References in periodicals archive ?
Canalithiasis refers to the displacement of otoconia located within the gelatinous membrane in the macula into the semicircular canals, whereas cupulolithiasis defines the adherence of these particles to the cupula of the semicircular canals.
BPV can result from canalolithiasis where the otoconia are freely floating in the duct of the semicircular canal or cupulolithiasis where the otoconia are adherent to the cupula.
In contrast, cupulolithiasis is characterized by persistent vertigo and nystagmus which does not subside until the patient moves away from the provocative position (Bisdorff et al.
The two main hypothesis; which explain the development of BPPV are the cupulolithiasis and canalithiasis theory, which is based on the presence of free- floating debris in the lumen of the canal which is the cause of vertigo4.
Two proposed causes of vertigo are canalithiasis and cupulolithiasis, which are often cited to explain benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in particular.
Schuknecht proposed that BPPV occurs when otoconia irritate the ampulla of the posterior semicircular canal (the cupulolithiasis theory), but other theories exist, as well.
Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain the cause of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV): cupulolithiasis (1) and canalithiasis.
The cupulolithiasis theory holds that BPPV is caused by the presence of otoconial debris that adheres to the cupula of the posterior semicircular canal.
4] He developed a theory to explain the clinical classification of BPPV, which he called the cupulolithiasis theory.
Cupulolithiasis and posterior ampullary nerve transection.
The pathophysiologic mechanism of BPPV is presumed to involve canalothiasis [7] or cupulolithiasis.