If they are still certain about changing by the age of 16, then cross-sex
hormones can be prescribed.
For example, the perception of male-to-male reciprocal touching is deemed less normative than the reciprocal touching of a cross-sex
friendship, such that the simple act of hugging between two men could suggest a sexual relationship in a third-party observer where none exists (Derlega, Lewis, Harrison, & Winstead, 1989).
Participants were then asked to think of a particular same-sex or cross-sex
friend, report on the length of time they have known their friend, and indicate the average amount of time per day they typically spent with that person.
Before he gets round to cross-sex
friendship, he devotes separate chapters to women as friends and men as friends.
Transsexuals undergoing cross-sex
hormone treatment with high doses of sex steroids provide a relatively unambiguous model, allowing us to study the effects of sex steroids in healthy persons.
on the Perceptions of Severity in Same and Cross-Sex
Small Insults: A Study of Interruptions in Cross-Sex
Conversations between Unacquainted Persons.
Mrs Saunders, from Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, said she had learned to carry out such searches during her training in 1987, but cross-sex
'rubdowns' were banned at that time by prison rules.
Because young children were essentially bisexual, the transition period to heterosexuality was extremely "unstable" and "fluctuating," with many opportunities for bringing about "prolonged homosexuality"  (53) For some writers, then, cross-sex
identification was a prelude rather than an obstacle to the development of heterosexuality.
Throughout her narrative, Tillmann-Healy challenges cultural assumptions surrounding gay men, the nature of sexual identity, cross-sex
friendship, the relationship between sexual orientation and friendship, and cultural homophobia.
They may overlook evidence showing that even when there is more than adequate mothering, paternal absence can produce short-term effects such as difficulties in achievement and goal-directed behavior and curtailment of aggressive or anti-social impulses, and long-term effects such as difficulties with adult roles involving cross-sex
relationships and the ability to work productively (Rodgers & Pryor, 1998).
Same sex mentoring relationships occur more frequently than cross-sex
relationships in both business and academic settings.