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functional obstruction at the level of the upper esophageal sphincter due to failure of relaxation of the cricopharyngeal muscle; often associated with a pharyngoesophageal diverticulum.
cri·co·pha·ryn·ge·al a·cha·la·sia(krī'kō-făr-in'jē-ăl ak-ă-lā'zē-ă)
Failure of the lower pharyngeal muscles to relax during swallowing. The condition may cause dysphagia or aspiration of food or gastric contents.
See also: achalasia
failure to relax of the smooth muscle fibers of the gastrointestinal tract at any junction of one part with another; especially failure of the lower esophagus to relax with swallowing, due to an abnormality of innervation. Called also cardiospasm. See also megaesophagus.
failure of the cranial esophageal sphincter to relax during swallowing to accommodate the approaching bolus. Gagging, nasal regurgitation and aspiration result. Called also cricoesophageal incoordination.
is motor dysfunction of the cricopharyngeal sphincter in which a failure of relaxation prevents the bolus from entering the esophagus during swallowing. Called also cricopharyngeal dysphagia.
failure of the pylorus to open in neonates so that distention of the stomach occurs and causes continuous vomiting. This may be reflex in response to local ulceration, e.g. in young calves, or be a congenital defect.
reticulo-omasal sphincter achalasia
is probably a factor in the development of the gut stasis in bovine vagal indigestion with onward passage of ingesta obstructed at the exit from the rumenoreticulum. Results in rumen distention and frothiness of contents.