cretinism


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cretinism

 [kre´tĭ-nizm]
arrested physical and mental development with dystrophy of bones and soft tissues, due to congenital lack of thyroid gland secretion from hypofunction or absence of the gland. Affected children have a large head, short limbs, puffy eyes, coarse hair, a round abdomen, a thick and protruding tongue with drooling, excessively dry skin, lack of coordination, and mental retardation. Thyroid deficiency that is acquired or seen in adults is called myxedema. Administration of thyroid hormone medication, which must be continued for life, can result in normal growth and mental development of these children. If untreated, however, they will become permanently dwarfed, probably mentally retarded, and sterile.

cre·tin·ism

(kreh'tin-izm),

cretinism

/cre·tin·ism/ (kre´tin-izm) arrested physical and mental development with dystrophy of bones and soft tissues, due to congenital lack of thyroid secretion.
athyrotic cretinism  cretinism due to thyroid aplasia or destruction of the thyroid of the fetus in utero.
endemic cretinism  a form occurring in regions of severe endemic goiter, marked by deaf-mutism, spasticity, and motor dysfunction in addition to, or instead of, the usual manifestations of cretinism.
sporadic goitrous cretinism  a genetic disorder in which enlargement of the thyroid gland is associated with deficient circulating thyroid hormone.

cretinism

(krēt′n-ĭz′əm)
n.
A congenital condition caused by a deficiency of thyroid hormone during prenatal development and characterized by small stature, intellectual disability, dystrophy of the bones, and a low basal metabolism.

cretinism

[krē′təniz′əm]
Etymology: Fr, cretin, idiot
a congenital condition characterized by severe hypothyroidism and often associated with other endocrine abnormalities. Myxedema is the acquired form of hypothyroidism. Typical signs of cretinism include dwarfism, mental deficiency, puffy facial features, dry skin, large tongue, umbilical hernia, and muscular incoordination. The disorder occurs usually in areas where the diet is deficient in iodine and where goiter is common. Early treatment with thyroid hormone generally promotes normal physical growth but may not prevent mental retardation. The use of iodized salt dramatically reduces the incidence of cretinism in a population. The condition is rare in the United States, but in some areas, including parts of Ecuador, the Himalayas, and Zaire, more than 5% of the people are affected. See also familial cretinism. cretin, n., cretinous, adj.

cre·tin·ism

(kret'in-izm)
Obsolete term for congenital hypothyroidism.
See also: infantile hypothyroidism

cretinism

A condition caused by thyroid underaction from severe iodine deficiency early in life. It features dwarfism, mental retardation, dry skin, a large tongue and a puffy face. Cretinism occurs mainly in regions remote from the sea. Iodization of table salt and early screening of babies has largely eliminated the condition from such regions.

Cretinism

Severe hypothyroidism that is present at birth and characterized by severe mental retardation.

cre·tin·ism

(kret'in-izm)
Obsolete term for congenital hypothyroidism. This offensive term should be avoided.

cretinism (krē´tənizəm) (congenital hypothyroidism),

cretinism

arrested physical and mental development with dystrophy of bones and soft tissues, resulting in disproportionate dwarfism. Due to congenital or early-onset hypothyroidism. Seen in foals and possibly is an unrecognized cause of neonatal deaths in other species.
References in periodicals archive ?
She said Iodine deficiency primarily affects the developing brain and leads to cretinism and other physical and mental impairments.
Although this amount is sufficient in preventing mental retardation, hypothyroidism, goiter, and cretinism in the majority of the population, it does not account for whole-body iodine usage.
The whole problem of goiter or myxoedema, of cretinism and exophthalmia, seemed to resolve itself into a question of the presence or absence of a few pinches of iodine in our thyroids.
The spectrum of these disorders includes endemic goitre, hypothyroidism, endemic cretinism, and other congenital anomalies (2).
1999), and iodine deficiency-related hypothyroidism is a known cause of cretinism, the leading preventable cause of mental retardation worldwide (Dunn 1993).
Medical textbooks discuss inorganic, non-radioactive iodine only in relation to the most severe deficiencies of this essential element: cretinism, hypothyroidism, and endemic goiter.
Congenital hypothyroidism, previously known as cretinism, is characterized by dwarfism and mental retardation.
A large proportion of people with severe iodine deficiency are women of reproductive age, who are at a higher risk of pregnancy-related problems, including abortion, stillbirth, low-birthweight infants, brain damage or cretinism in infants even before birth, and lower chance of survival.
5) However, the US RDA and WHO recommendations were not based on whole-body sufficiency for iodine, but on the minimum amounts of iodine required to prevent goiter and cretinism.
Severe hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency during pregnancy is a preventable cause of cretinism, a permanent cognitive impairment of the developing fetus (Glinoer 2000).
2) In that book, goiter and cretinism were the only two aspects of iodine deficiency discussed.
These women are at a higher risk of pregnancy-related problems, including abortion, stillbirth, low-birth-weight infants, brain damage or cretinism in infants even before birth, and lower chance of survival (2).