cranial nerves


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cranial

 [kra´ne-al]
pertaining to the cranium or to the head end of the body; in humans, a synonym of superior.
cranial nerves nerves that are attached to the brain and pass through the openings of the skull; see anatomic Table of Nerves in the Appendices. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, symmetrically arranged so that they are distributed mainly to the structures of the head and neck. The one exception is the vagus nerve, which extends down to serve structures in the chest and abdomen. Some of the cranial nerves are both sensory and motor (controlling motion as well as conducting sensory impulses), while others are either only sensory or only motor.

cra·ni·al nerves

[TA]
those nerves that emerge from, or enter, the cranium or skull, in contrast to the spinal nerves, which emerge from the spine or vertebral column. The 12 paired cranial nerves are the olfactory [CN I], optic [CN II], oculomotor [CN III], trochlear [CN IV], trigeminal [CN V], abducent [CN VI], facial [CN VII], vestibulocochlear [CN VIII], glossopharyngeal [CN IX], vagal [CN X], accessory [CN XI], and hypoglossal [CN XII] nerves.
Synonym(s): nervi craniales [TA]

cranial nerves

Etymology: Gk, kranion, skull; L, nervus
the 12 pairs of nerves emerging from the cranial cavity through various openings in the skull. Beginning with the most anterior, they are designated by Roman numerals and named (I) olfactory, (II) optic, (III) oculomotor, (IV) trochlear, (V) trigeminal, (VI) abducens, (VII) facial, (VIII) vestibulocochlear (acoustic), (IX) glossopharyngeal, (X) vagal, (XI) accessory, and (XII) hypoglossal. The cranial nerves originate in the base of the brain and carry impulses for such functions as smell, vision, ocular movement, pupil contraction, muscular sensibility, general sensibility, mastication, facial expression, glandular secretion, taste, cutaneous sensibility, hearing, equilibrium, swallowing, phonation, tongue movement, head movement, and shoulder movement. Certain cranial nerves, particularly V, VII, and VIII, contain two or more distinct functional components considered as independent nerves by some authorities. Some anatomists also classify the terminal nerve as the first cranial. Also called cerebral nerves. See also the specific nerves.

cra·ni·al nerves

(krā'nē-ăl nĕrvz) [TA]
Those nerves that emerge from, or enter, the cranium or skull, in contrast to the spinal nerves, which emerge from the spine or vertebral column. The twelve paired cranial nerves are the olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducent, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagal, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves.
See also: Brodmann areas
Synonym(s): nervi craniales [TA] .

cranial nerves

The 12 pairs of nerves which spring directly from the brain and brain stem. They include the nerves for smell, sight, eye movement, facial movement and sensation, hearing, taste and head movement.

Cranial nerves

The set of twelve nerves found on each side of the head and neck that control the sensory and muscle functions of a number of organs such as the eyes, nose, tongue face and throat.
Mentioned in: Acoustic Neuroma

cranial nerves

twelve pairs of nerves (sensory, motor or mixed) that originate in the brain stem; includes those serving the 'special senses' of hearing and balance, vision, taste and smell.

cra·ni·al nerves

(krā'nē-ăl nĕrvz) [TA]
Nerves that emerge from, or enter, the cranium. The 12 paired cranial nerves are the olfactory [CN I], optic [CN II], oculomotor [CN III], trochlear [CN IV], trigeminal [CN V], abducent [CN VI], facial [CN VII], vestibulocochlear [CN VIII], glossopharyngeal [CN IX], vagal [CN X], accessory [CN XI], and hypoglossal [CN XII].

cranial nerves,

n See nerves, cranial.

cranial

pertaining to the cranium or to the head end of the body. See also anterior, cranium.

cranial intestinal portal
the entrance into the embryonic foregut from the expanded midgut.
cranial nerve reflexes
see specific nerves.
cranial nerves
nerves which are attached to the brain and pass through the openings of the skull. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, symmetrically arranged so that they are distributed mainly to the structures of the head and neck. See also specific nerves and Table 14.
cranial tibial reflex
percussing just below the lateral tibial condyle (cranial tibial muscle) normally causes a slight flexion of the tibiotarsal joint. A test of the integrity of spinal cord segments L6 to S2, sciatic and peroneal nerves. Exaggerated in spinal cord lesions above L6.
cranial tumor
see brain tumors.
cranial vena cava
see Table 15.
References in periodicals archive ?
Autopsy was limited to the brain and demonstrated inflammatory demyelination of cranial nerve tissue (Figure).
A rare case of Garcin's syndrome presented with progressive multiple unilateral cranial nerve palsies due to Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma.
Pathologically there is brown discoloration of the leptomeninges of the cerebellum (especially the vermis), basal frontal lobe, olfactory bulb, temporal cortex, brainstem, cranial nerves, spinal cord, nerve roots, ependyma and subpial tissue of < 3 mm deep.
For simplicity and to reflect the difficulty in assessing specific cranial nerve injury in this population, we separated the data for cranial nerve II and aggregated the data for cranial nerves III, IV, and VI.
Symptoms are noisome and include headache and cranial nerve deficits.
We know Moebius affects the cranial nerves which are missing or fail to develop and that those kind of problems are usually caused by faulty chromosomes.
There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves that arise from the brain and exit through the opening at the base of the skull.
The peripheral nervous system is comprised of the cranial nerves, spinal nerves, autonomic nerves, and ganglia.
They may cause significant lower cranial nerve deficits due to mass effect, and as part of the chromaffin cell system (including pheochromocytomas), they may also actively secrete catecholamines.
At first, Soares studied alligator tissue and noted that the dots connect to the trigeminal nerve, which is the thickest of the cranial nerves in an alligator.
There are approximately 30 muscles and 6 cranial nerves involved in every swallow.