cranial nerves


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cranial

 [kra´ne-al]
pertaining to the cranium or to the head end of the body; in humans, a synonym of superior.
cranial nerves nerves that are attached to the brain and pass through the openings of the skull; see anatomic Table of Nerves in the Appendices. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, symmetrically arranged so that they are distributed mainly to the structures of the head and neck. The one exception is the vagus nerve, which extends down to serve structures in the chest and abdomen. Some of the cranial nerves are both sensory and motor (controlling motion as well as conducting sensory impulses), while others are either only sensory or only motor.

cra·ni·al nerves

[TA]
those nerves that emerge from, or enter, the cranium or skull, in contrast to the spinal nerves, which emerge from the spine or vertebral column. The 12 paired cranial nerves are the olfactory [CN I], optic [CN II], oculomotor [CN III], trochlear [CN IV], trigeminal [CN V], abducent [CN VI], facial [CN VII], vestibulocochlear [CN VIII], glossopharyngeal [CN IX], vagal [CN X], accessory [CN XI], and hypoglossal [CN XII] nerves.
Synonym(s): nervi craniales [TA]

cranial nerves

Etymology: Gk, kranion, skull; L, nervus
the 12 pairs of nerves emerging from the cranial cavity through various openings in the skull. Beginning with the most anterior, they are designated by Roman numerals and named (I) olfactory, (II) optic, (III) oculomotor, (IV) trochlear, (V) trigeminal, (VI) abducens, (VII) facial, (VIII) vestibulocochlear (acoustic), (IX) glossopharyngeal, (X) vagal, (XI) accessory, and (XII) hypoglossal. The cranial nerves originate in the base of the brain and carry impulses for such functions as smell, vision, ocular movement, pupil contraction, muscular sensibility, general sensibility, mastication, facial expression, glandular secretion, taste, cutaneous sensibility, hearing, equilibrium, swallowing, phonation, tongue movement, head movement, and shoulder movement. Certain cranial nerves, particularly V, VII, and VIII, contain two or more distinct functional components considered as independent nerves by some authorities. Some anatomists also classify the terminal nerve as the first cranial. Also called cerebral nerves. See also the specific nerves.

cra·ni·al nerves

(krā'nē-ăl nĕrvz) [TA]
Those nerves that emerge from, or enter, the cranium or skull, in contrast to the spinal nerves, which emerge from the spine or vertebral column. The twelve paired cranial nerves are the olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducent, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagal, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves.
See also: Brodmann areas
Synonym(s): nervi craniales [TA] .

cranial nerves

The 12 pairs of nerves which spring directly from the brain and brain stem. They include the nerves for smell, sight, eye movement, facial movement and sensation, hearing, taste and head movement.

Cranial nerves

The set of twelve nerves found on each side of the head and neck that control the sensory and muscle functions of a number of organs such as the eyes, nose, tongue face and throat.
Mentioned in: Acoustic Neuroma

cranial nerves

twelve pairs of nerves (sensory, motor or mixed) that originate in the brain stem; includes those serving the 'special senses' of hearing and balance, vision, taste and smell.

cra·ni·al nerves

(krā'nē-ăl nĕrvz) [TA]
Nerves that emerge from, or enter, the cranium. The 12 paired cranial nerves are the olfactory [CN I], optic [CN II], oculomotor [CN III], trochlear [CN IV], trigeminal [CN V], abducent [CN VI], facial [CN VII], vestibulocochlear [CN VIII], glossopharyngeal [CN IX], vagal [CN X], accessory [CN XI], and hypoglossal [CN XII].

cranial nerves,

n See nerves, cranial.

cranial

pertaining to the cranium or to the head end of the body. See also anterior, cranium.

cranial intestinal portal
the entrance into the embryonic foregut from the expanded midgut.
cranial nerve reflexes
see specific nerves.
cranial nerves
nerves which are attached to the brain and pass through the openings of the skull. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, symmetrically arranged so that they are distributed mainly to the structures of the head and neck. See also specific nerves and Table 14.
cranial tibial reflex
percussing just below the lateral tibial condyle (cranial tibial muscle) normally causes a slight flexion of the tibiotarsal joint. A test of the integrity of spinal cord segments L6 to S2, sciatic and peroneal nerves. Exaggerated in spinal cord lesions above L6.
cranial tumor
see brain tumors.
cranial vena cava
see Table 15.
References in periodicals archive ?
The rest of his cranial nerve functions were normal.
Isolated anisocoria from an endodermal cyst of the third cranial nerve mimicking an Adie's tonic pupil.
The most common manifestations of central nervous system (CNS) sarcoidosis are cranial nerve deficits (50%), headache (30%), and seizures (10%).
We detected neither RNA nor antigen for Zika virus in any autopsy specimens tested (Zika virus RT-PCR, cranial nerve VII, sciatic nerve, and spinal cord including cauda equina; IHC, brain, spinal cord, sciatic nerve, and multiple solid organs).
The seventh and sixth cranial nerves are the most commonly affected cranial nerves.
Cases with a diagnosis of painful ophthalmoplegia who are found to have cranial nerve paralysis or paralyses should be evaluated in terms of THS because recurrence may be observed in these cases because they do not receive steroid treatment (4).
The combinations of cranial nerves involved are shown in Table 6.
The syndrome has been characterized by episodic orbital pain accompanied by paralysis of the oculomotor, trochlear, and/or abducens cranial nerves that tends to resolve spontaneously but may remit and relapse [10].
Subsequently, he presented with multiple cranial nerve palsies (from III to X cranial nerves) and central spastic palsy (bilateral pyramidal tracts involvement), which may suggest a brainstem insult.
The PoNS is an investigational medical device that is designed to induce neuromodulation by stimulating the cranial nerves found in the tongue.
The Human Brain in 1969 Pieces: Structure, Vasculature, Tracts, Cranial Nerves, Systems, Head Muscles, and Glands, 2nd Edition