Phylogenetic analysis shows that avian coxiellosis agents and Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, represent 2 independent events of development of vertebrate pathogenicity in this group of tick endosymbionts.
Key words: splenomegaly, coxiellosis, Coxiella-like endosymbiont, antemortem, avian, blue and gold macaw, Ara ararauna
10) Although treatment for coxiellosis has yet to be reported in birds, the efficacy of doxycycline in the treatment of Q fever is well documented and its use in avian patients is extensive.
Avian coxiellosis appears to be an emerging infectious disease with significant mortality among captive species of bird.
While splenic rupture has been previously reported in avian coxiellosis cases, (3) and more than a week passed between splenic aspiration and rupture, the potential role of iatrogenic injury caused by the fine-needle aspirate must also be considered.
The best available model with significant data for diagnosis and treatment of avian coxiellosis is Q fever.
Currently there are no isolates or characterized antigens of avian Coxiella species, so serologic assays for avian coxiellosis are not currently available.
The diagnosis of coxiellosis in animals may not be as straightforward, as tissue sample availability and test sensitivity may be decreased.
Infected domestic animals (cattle, sheep, and goats but [ILLEGIBLE TEXT] animals, especially cats), frequently with persistent and subclinical coxiellosis, [ILLEGIBLE TEXT] the main source of C.
burnetii by [ILLEGIBLE TEXT] animals and raw materials and the possibility of coxiellosis outbreaks among [ILLEGIBLE TEXT] animals and consequently Q fever in humans.