Amylin (a pancreatic polypeptide), the incretins (glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1] and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide [GIP]), and other glucose counterregulatory hormones (epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, and growth hormone) are part of this redundant and complex neuroendocrine network that contributes to maintaining this balance.
The insulin-antagonistic effect of the counterregulatory hormones.
Also, algorithms linking the sensor with the delivery system must account for other physiologic factors that contribute to glucose homeostasis, such as incretins, free fatty acids, and counterregulatory hormones
An increase in counterregulatory hormones, such as glucagons, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and growth hormone, results in increased hepatic glucose production and decreased peripheral glucose uptake, subsequently inducing a hyperglycemic state (Montori, Bistrian, & McMahon, 2002).
It is suggested that elderly people mount an inadequate response to the insulin resistance of critical illness, which is produced by the actions of increased counterregulatory hormones and cytokines (McCowen et al.
are lower in patients undergoing general anesthesia
Anaerobic exercise, such as sprinting, involves the release of counterregulatory hormones (cortisol and epinephrine) that can sharply increase glucose release from the liver.
In aerobic activity, there is a less marked release of counterregulatory hormones, and the main risk is hypoglycemia as the muscles use up glucose.