cortisol


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Related to cortisol: cortisone, Low cortisol

cortisol

 [kor´tĭ-sol]
a hormone from the adrenal cortex, the principal glucocorticoid; called also 17-hydroxycorticosterone and, pharmaceutically, hydrocortisone. A synthetic preparation is used for its antiinflammatory actions.

cor·ti·sol

(kōr'ti-sol),
The principal glucocorticoid produced by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. It promotes gluconeogenesis and lipolysis, suppresses protein synthesis, inhibits inflammatory and immune responses, and has mild mineralocorticoid (for example, hypernatremic, kaliureteric, antidiuretic) effects. Most plasma cortisol is bound to transcortin and albumin. Synthetic cortisol administered as a drug is usually known by the alternative name hydrocortisone.

cortisol

/cor·ti·sol/ (-sol) the major natural glucocorticoid elaborated by the adrenal cortex; it affects the metabolism of glucose, protein, and fats and has mineralocorticoid activity. See hydrocortisone for therapeutic uses.

cortisol

(kôr′tĭ-sôl′, -zôl′, -sōl′, -zōl′)
n.
A steroid hormone, C21H30O5, produced by the adrenal cortex, that regulates carbohydrate metabolism, maintains blood pressure, and is released in response to stress; hydrocortisone.

cortisol

[kôr′təsôl]
a steroid hormone produced naturally by the adrenal gland, identical to chemically synthesized hydrocortisone.
indications It is prescribed for adrenocortical insufficiency, topically for inflammation, and as an adjunct for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.
contraindications Fungal infections or known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its systemic use. Viral or fungal infections of the skin, impaired circulation, or known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its topical use.
adverse effects Among the more serious adverse reactions to this drug are GI, endocrine, neurological, fluid, and electrolyte disturbances. Hypersensitivity reactions may result from topical administration.

cortisol

Hydrocortisone A major hormone produced by the adrenal cortex, which is the primary glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal gland in response to ACTH stimulation or stress; cortisol has anti-inflammatory activity, and is involved in gluconeogenesis, glycogen storage in the liver, immune regulation, mediation of physiologic stress responses, Ca2+ absorption, secretion of gastric acid and pepsin, conversion of proteins to carbohydrates, and nutrient metabolism; it is secreted in a diurnal pattern–levels rise early morning, peak ± 8 am, and flatten in the evening, diurnal cycling is lost in Cushing syndrome; cortisol secretion is influenced by heat, cold, infection, trauma, excercise, obesity, intercurrent illness ↑ in Adrenal CA, Cushing's disease, ectopic ACTH, ectopic CRH, hyperthyroidism, depression, alcoholism, substance abuse, anorexia, heavy smoking, CA, ulcers, DM, chronic pain, strokes, CVA, Parkinson's disease, MS, psoriasis, acne, eczema, stress, aging, Alzheimer's disease, AIDS, space adaptation syndrome ↓ in Addison's disease, hypopituitarism, hypothyroidism. See Corticosteroid, Dexamethasone suppression test.

hy·dro·cor·ti·sone

(hī'drō-kōr'ti-sōn)
A steroid hormone secreted by the cortex of the suprarenal gland and the most potent of the naturally occurring glucocorticoids in humans.
Synonym(s): cortisol.

cortisol

A hormone produced by the adrenal cortex. Also called hydrocortisone.

cortisol

or

hydrocortisone

an adrenocortical steroid with effects similar to CORTISONE.

Cortisol

A hormone released by the cortex (outer portion) of the adrenal gland when a person is under stress. Cortisol levels are now considered a biological marker of suicide risk.

glucocorticoids

the group of corticosteroid hormones (mainly cortisol syn hydrocortisone, of which cortisone is the precursor) produced by the adrenal cortex, under the control of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary. Their major actions on nutrient metabolism have the net effect of promoting glucose and free fatty acid availability as fuels. Also vital for normal cellular processes as diverse, for example, as excitation-contraction coupling and the health of connective tissues. Synthetic steroids such as prednisolone and dexamethasone have similar actions and are used in the treatment of, for example, asthma and rheumatic conditions. Banned in sport due to their powerful anti-inflammatory action and effect of producing euphoria and masking pain. (Not to be confused with anabolic steroids). See also adrenal glands, hormones; Table 1.
Table 1: Hormones
Site of productionName of hormoneMain targetsInvolved in regulating:Secretion controlled by:
HypothalamusReleasing and inhibiting hormonesAnterior pituitary (via local blood vessels)Secretion of anterior pituitary hormonesOther brain regions; feedback re regulated hormones and their actions
Neurohormones released from posterior pituitary:
OxytocinUterus, breastsLabour and lactationAfferent information from target organs
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)KidneysWater loss: ECF volume and osmolalityHypothalamic osmoreceptors
Anterior pituitary(Human) growth hormone (H)GHMost cellsGrowth and metabolismHypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones via local blood vessels
ProlactinBreastsMilk production
Trophic hormones:
Thyroid-stimulating (TSH)Thyroid glandThyroid secretions
GonadotrophinsOvary or testisGerm cell maturation and hormone secretions
Adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH)Adrenal cortexCortisol secretion
Pineal bodyMelatoninWidespread, including brain, thymus, etc.
  • Sleep/wake cycle
  • Antioxidant
  • Immune system
Hypothalamus; varying light input from retina
Thyroid
  • Thyroxine
  • Triiodothyronine
  • Calcitonin
  • Most cells
  • Bone, kidneys, gut
  • Cellular oxidative metabolism
  • Decreases ECF [Ca2+]
  • TSH from anterior pituitary. Negative feedback from blood hormone concentration
  • ECF [Ca2+]
ParathyroidsParathormoneBone, kidneys, gut
  • Calcium and phosphorus absorption, secretion and turnover in bone.
  • Increases ECF [Ca2+]
ECF [Ca2+]
Adrenal: Cortex
  • Cortisol
  • Aldosterone
  • Androgens
  • Most cells
  • Kidneys
  • Gonads & other tissues
  • Metabolism
  • Response to stress
  • Na and K balance
  • Sex characteristics and reproductive function
  • ACTH from anterior pituitary
  • ECF [Na+] [K+]
  • Renin-angiotensin
  • ACTH
Medulla
  • Adrenaline
  • Noradrenaline
Heart, smooth muscle, glandsCardiovascular and metabolic adjustments to activity and stressSympathetic nervous system
Atrial wallAtrial natriuretic hormoneKidneysBlood volume; increases sodium (therefore also water) loss in urineStretch of atrial wall by venous pressure
Gonads: TestisAndrogens (mainly testosterone)Genitalia and other tissuesReproductive function and sex characteristicsAnterior pituitary gonadotrophins
Ovary
  • Oestrogens
  • Progesterone
Uterus, breasts and other tissuesMenstrual cycle, pregnancy, lactation
Pancreas
  • Insulin, glucagon
  • Somatostatin
  • Most cells
  • Other secretory cells in the pancreas
Blood levels, storage and cellular uptake of nutrients, notably glucose, but also proteins and fatsBlood levels of nutrients; autonomic nervous system; other gastrointesinal hormones
Alimentary tract
StomachGastrinGastric acid-secreting cellsGastrointestinal functions: motility, digestive juices and other secretionsLocal chemical and mechanical factors in the alimentary tract
Small intestine
  • Secretin
  • Cholecystokinin- pancreozymin (CCK-PZ)
  • Somatostatin, motilin
  • Other peptide hormones including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
  • Widespread on
  • GI tract
Several GI functions including bile flow, pancreatic enzyme and exocrine secretionsIngestion of food, distension of GI tract

hydrocortisone

; cortisol potent, naturally occurring glucocorticoids that suppress inflammation (e.g. topical ointment; intra-articular or enthesis injection)

cortisol (kōrˑ·t·sōl),

n an adrenal hormone produced in response to stress.

cor·ti·sol

(kōr'ti-sol)
Principal glucocorticoid produced by the zona fasciculata of the cortex of the suprarenal gland; promotes gluconeogenesis and lipolysis and inhibits inflammatory and immune responses.

cortisol,

cortisol

a hormone from the adrenal cortex; the principal glucocorticoid. Called also 17-hydroxycorticosterone and, pharmaceutically, hydrocortisone. A synthetic preparation is used for its anti-inflammatory actions.

cortisol-binding globulin
much plasma cortisol is bound to a α-globulin—transcortin, some to albumin. Much is free and in the form of a glycuronide or sulfate.
cortisol:corticosterone ratio
the ratio between the two hormones is different between species and even between individual animals. There is also a circadian rhythm in the ratio which must therefore be interpreted with caution.
cortisol:creatinine (C/C) ratio
measured in the urine as a screening test for hyperadrenocorticism.
cortisol hemisuccinate
cortisol response test
see acth response test; dexamethasone suppression test.
References in periodicals archive ?
Being exposed to high levels of cortisol for long periods of time can tip the scales in favor of disease.
To investigate whether hair samples could be used to assess the effects of asthma on cortisol levels during pregnancy, a research team led by Gideon Koren, MD, a clinical pharmacologist at the University of Toronto, and Bruce Carleton, PharmD, at the University of British Columbia, collected hair samples from 93 pregnant women, of whom 62 had asthma and 31 did not.
There are dozens of ways to reduce stress and reduce cortisol production to allow your body to return to normal.
3 (pg/mL) Cortisol, urinary 442 69 0 to 50 ([micro]g/24h) Table 3: Comparison of laboratory studies with adrenal Cushing's syndrome and normal pregnancy Test Adrenal Normal Cushing's pregnancy syndrome Morning serum Increased Increased cortisol Diurnal rhythm Midnight Midnight of cortisol nadir lost nadir preserved Salivary Increased Increased cortisol Urinary free > 4 fold 3 fold cortisol increase increase in third trimester Low dose After test Blunted dexamethasone cortisol > 5 response suppression ([micro]g/dL) test High dose < 50% Blunted dexamethasone suppression response suppression of cortisol test Adrenocorticotropic Decreased Increased hormone (ACTH) because of placental cortisol releasing hormone (CRH)
Standard therapy for clinical AIMAH is bilateral adrenalectomy, which can remove the source of serum cortisol radically, with 5-year survival rates being 66% to 70%.
Numerous hormones and regulating systems are involved in the neuroendocrinology of acute stress responses and similar to psychosocial stress, the main systems for acute exercise responses are the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system with the release of catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine) and the HPA axis with the corticotropinreleasing hormone (CRH) as the principal hypothalamic regulator of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) which stimulates the release of cortisol from the adrenal cortex.
Differences in level of cortisol were assessed at various points during the day between the experimental group and comparison, and no significant differences were found.
The LNSC LC-MS/MS results demonstrated very high Cortisol concentrations, confirming the ELISA results (Table 1); however, salivary cortisone concentrations were not increased.
At the time of ethics approval and collection of samples, free cortisol assay was being developed at our institution (4) and was not available for comparison in previous observations of this cohort (5).
Validate salivary cortisol in our Clinical Laboratory Science (MLS) student laboratory.
No link was found between high cortisol levels and other causes of death.
At the start of the study, which involved 96 adolescents with no evidence of depression or other psychiatric disorders, researchers monitored the sleep cycles of participants for three days and collected saliva and urine samples to record cortisol levels.