corneal endothelium

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Related to corneal endothelium: Corneal epithelium

corneal endothelium 

The posterior layer of the cornea consisting of a single layer of cells, about 5 μm thick, bound together and predominantly hexagonal in shape. The posterior border is in direct contact with the aqueous humour while the anterior border is in contact with Descemet's membrane. The endothelium is the structure responsible for the relative dehydration of the corneal stroma. The endothelium receives most of its energy from the oxidative breakdown of carbohydrates via the Krebs cycle. In the normal adult eye the cell density varies from around 3000 cells/mm2 in the centre of the cornea to about 2000 cells/mm2 in the periphery. With age, disease or trauma the density of cells decreases but with disease or trauma this reduction may affect corneal transparency, as some fluid then leaks into the cornea. See endothelial bedewing; endothelial blebs; cornea guttata; specular reflection illumination; specular microscope; phacoemulsification; endothelial polymegethism.


pl. endothelia [Gr.] the layer of epithelial cells that lines the cavities of the heart and of the blood and lymph vessels, sometimes applied to other internal epithelial surfaces.

corneal endothelium
lines the inner surface of the cornea, between the corneal stroma and aqueous humor; called also the posterior epithelium.
References in periodicals archive ?
With a compromised corneal endothelium, it is important to use a surgical technique that is the least traumatic as well as provide maximum protection to the corneal endothelium with use of dispersive OVD.
Several methods exist to evaluate the cell density of the human corneal endothelium.
No complications related to cell injection therapy were observed and reconstructed corneal endothelium with Y-27632 exhibited normal hexagonal cell shape.
Guttae (from the Latin gutta for 'drop') on the corneal endothelium are the characteristic first sign of FCED.
CFTR expression has previously been localised to the apical membrane of the corneal endothelium, (31,33,54) where it is known to facilitate fluid efflux in order to maintain corneal transparency.
Cells that are naturally lost with age from the corneal endothelium disperse into the anterior chamber.
The main two functions of the corneal endothelium are to allow nutrients to pass to the outer layers of the cornea, and to prevent the stroma from being overloaded with water by pumping it from the stroma into the aqueous.
This inflammation could extend to the corneal endothelium (eg, as pseudoguttata) or even be evident in the anterior chamber as flare and even cells as the blood-ocular barrier is compromised by ongoing development of inflammation.
These are small excrescences of abnormal basement membrane and collagen fibrillar material from distressed corneal endothelium.
The role of the corneal endothelium is to maintain the correct level of corneal hydration.
In rabbits, a cytotoxic level for the corneal endothelium was found to be 0.
When the floating cells deposit on the corneal endothelium they form aggregates called keratic precipitates (KP's).

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