(CA) ligament is then completely released to allow additional visualization of the rotator interval window.
Subacromial impingement involves compression or mechanical irritation of the subacromial bursa, supraspinatus tendon, infraspinatus tendon, and/or long head of the biceps tendon between the coracoacromial
arch and the humeral head (Figure 2(a))  and is purported to occur at lower humeral elevation angles.
arch consists of the acromion, coracoacromial
ligament, and coracoid process.
Rotator cuff muscles traverse a narrow space between the acromion and coracoacromial
, ligament above and the humeral head below.
The main mechanism is subacromial impingement of rotator cuff tendons (mainly supraspinatus), long head of biceps tendon and subacromial bursa between the humeral head and coracoacromial
arch caused by repetitive overhead activities of the arm.
1996) Nontraumatic glenohumeral instability and coracoacromial
impingement in swimmers.
With flexion or abduction of the shoulder, the tendon passes most closely beneath the tip of the acromium or the coracoacromial
ligament, especially when the shoulder is abducted to 80[degrees].
ligament (CAL): the CAL can be felt on most subjects as a firm, unforgiving structure between the coracoid and the anterior tip of the acromion, often with an obvious fibrous edge.
3) Similarly, use of a hemiarthroplasty in this scenario is at risk for developing anterosuperior subluxation in patients with previous acromioplasty and incompetent coracoacromial
Bone block transfer of coracoacromial
ligament in acromioclavicular injury.
The coracoclavicular and coracoacromial
ligaments, as well as the coracobrachialis, short head of the biceps, and pectoralis minor have all been implicated in coracoid avulsion fractures through indirect mechanisms.
Patients with subacromial impingement were managed by a subacromial decompression, with partial resection of the coracoacromial