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Unless otherwise noted, presence of sperm in material that emerged from rear portion of female during or just following copulation was confirmed by examination at 400x.
To determine whether copulation affects mobility, I placed copulating pairs (n = 30) and single bugs (n = 43) in an arena and measured average movement speed.
Material of the mating cage thus influenced this copulation process and directly proportional on mating latency (time elapsed between the introduction of queens and males in mating cage until initiation of copulation).
The female shows a certain degree of sexual selection by being more accessible to cooperative males than to those that try to force copulation.
The relation between fertility and male age could be associated to the amount of sperm content received by the female during copulation.
In comparison with other species of Hemigrapsus, copulation was relatively extended, with a mean duration of 28.
High modernism was spawned by the copulation of Cartesian rationalism and Lockean empiricism in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, who defined enlightenment as "the courage to use your own intelligence.
Duration of copulation was not associated with fecundity, but, because nonvirgin females began calling later in the afternoon, their second copulations were shorter than their first.
The patterns of sperm precedence, the increased frequency of starting and stopping copulation with less actual time spent in copula of second males, suggests that the second males could not successfully copulate.
We show that small male JCs can mate with almost any female they encounter, whereas the largest (=longest) males are unable to mate with small females due to physical constraints arising from the body positions required for copulation.
chaudoiri, including the same four phases of pre-mating struggle, copulation, PCA and post-mating struggle.
In some cases artificial inflation of the endophallus is not sufficient to determine the shape (or shapes) of the endophallus during copulation, (Eberhard 1996, but see Flowers 1999 on Colaspis spp.