arteriosclerosis

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arteriosclerosis

 [ahr-te″re-o-sklĕ-ro´sis]
any of a group of diseases characterized by thickening and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls; popularly called “hardening of the arteries.” Symptoms depend on the organ system involved. adj., adj arteriosclerot´ic.ƒ

There are three main forms of arteriosclerosis: (1) atherosclerosis, the most common type, in which plaques of fatty deposits form in the inner layer (tunica intima) of the arteries; (2) Mönckeberg's arteriosclerosis, called also medial calcific sclerosis because of involvement of the middle layer (tunica media) of the arteries, where there is destruction of muscle and elastic fibers and formation of calcium deposits; and (3) arteriolar sclerosis or arteriolosclerosis, which is marked by thickening of the walls of arterioles. All three forms may be present in the same patient, but in different blood vessels. When reference is made to hardening of the arteries, this usually refers to atherosclerosis; the terms arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis are often used interchangeably.

It is the responsibility of the health care provider to help individuals modify or eliminate from their lives risk factors for the development of arteriosclerosis. These include cigarette smoking, obesity, elevated cholesterol levels, and sedentary life style.
Mönckeberg's arteriosclerosis see arteriosclerosis.
arteriosclerosis obli´terans arteriosclerosis in which proliferation of the intima has caused complete obliteration of the lumen of the artery. Cf. endarteritis obliterans.

ar·te·ri·o·scle·ro·sis

(ar-tēr'ē-ō-skler-ō'sis),
Hardening of the arteries; types generally recognized are: atherosclerosis, Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis, and arteriolosclerosis.
[arterio- + G. sklērōsis, hardness]

arteriosclerosis

/ar·te·rio·scle·ro·sis/ (-sklĕ-ro´sis) a group of diseases characterized by thickening and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls, occurring in three forms: atherosclerosis, Mönckeberg's arteriosclerosis, and arteriolosclerosis.arteriosclerot´ic
Mönckeberg's arteriosclerosis  arteriosclerosis with extensive deposits of calcium in the middle coat of the artery.
arteriosclerosis obli´terans  that in which proliferation of the intima of the small vessels has caused complete obliteration of the lumen of the artery.
peripheral arteriosclerosis  arteriosclerosis of the limbs.

arteriosclerosis

(är-tîr′ē-ō-sklə-rō′sĭs)
n.
Any of several chronic diseases, such as atherosclerosis, that are characterized by thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of the arteries and that lead to impaired blood circulation.

ar·te′ri·o·scle·rot′ic (-rŏt′ĭk) adj.

arteriosclerosis

[ärtir′ē·ō′sklərō′sis]
Etymology: Gk, arteria + sklerosis, hardening
a common disorder characterized by thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification of arterial walls. It results in a decreased blood supply, especially to the cerebrum and lower extremities. The condition often develops with aging and in hypertension, nephrosclerosis, scleroderma, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Typical signs and symptoms include intermittent claudication, changes in skin temperature and color, altered peripheral pulses, bruits over an involved artery, headache, dizziness, and memory defects. Vasodilators and exercise may relieve symptoms, but there is no specific treatment. Preventive measures include therapy for predisposing diseases, adequate rest and exercise, avoidance of stress, and discontinuation of tobacco use. Kinds of arteriosclerosis include atherosclerosis and Mönckeberg's arteriosclerosis. Also called arterial sclerosis, hardening of the arteries. arteriosclerotic, adj.

arteriosclerosis

A group of diseases, more commonly affecting men over age 50, characterised by thickening and hardening of arterial walls due to accumulation of lipids, calcium and fibrosis, as well as loss of elasticity and narrowing of arterial lumina. ASHD’s early effects are in the lower extremities, with subtotal occlusion and decreased exercise tolerance.

Forms
▪ Arteriolosclerosis:
   – Benign—associated with hyaline arteriolosclerosis;
   – Malignant—associated with myofibroblast hyperplasia, “onion-skinning” of endothelial basement membrane, and deposit of fibrinoid material in vascular wall.
▪ Atherosclerosis—Formed by cholesterol and cholesterol esters, covered by a fibrous plaque which with time becomes calcified, ulcerated and causes thromboembolism in coronary artery disease (strokes, MIs, leg ischaemia, ischaemia of large intestine). 
▪ Mönckeberg sclerosis—Idiopathic and often asymptomatic annular calcified bands occurring in the muscular media of medium to small blood vessels of the extremities.
 
Risk factors
Personal or family history of coronary artery or cerebrovascular disease; diabetes; hypertension; kidney disease involving haemodialysis; smoking; obesity.

arteriosclerosis

ASHD, hardening of the arteries Cardiology ASHD's early effects are in the lower extremities, with subtotal occlusion and decreased ability to withstand exercise without frequent rest periods; atherosclerosis is a generic term for arterial 'hardening'–calcium deposition, sclerosis, and thickening by fibrous tissue with loss of elasticity forms of arteriosclerosis including atherosclerosis–in which there is lipid deposition, Mönckeberg sclerosis, arteriolosclerosis; it is a common disorder usually affecting > age 50 and refers to any of a group of diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the artery wall and in the narrowing of its lumen Risk factors Personal or family history of coronary artery or cerebrovascular disease, DM, HTN, kidney disease involving hemodialysis, smoking, or obesity. See Atherosclerosis, Hyaline arteriosclerosis.
Arteriosclerosis
Arteriolosclerosis
  • Benign–associated with hyaline arteriolosclerosis
  • Malignant–associated with myofibroblast hyperplasia, 'onion-skinning' of endothelial basement membrane and deposit of fibrinoid material in vascular wall
Atherosclerosis
Formed by cholesterol and cholesterol esters, covered by a fibrous plaque which, with time becomes calcified, ulcerated and causes thromboembolism in coronary artery disease–strokes, MIs, leg ischemia-especially in DM, ischemia of large intestine
Mönckeberg sclerosis
Idiopathic and often asymptomatic annular calcified bands occurring in the muscular media of medium to small blood vessels of the extremities that have been fancifully likened to a goose's neck
.

ar·te·ri·o·scle·ro·sis

(ahr-tēr'ē-ō-skler-ō'sis)
Hardening of the arteries; types generally recognized are: atherosclerosis, Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis, and arteriolosclerosis.
Synonym(s): arterial sclerosis.
[L. arteria, + G. sklērōsis, hardness]

arteriosclerosis

Hardening of the arteries. The term, once ubiquitous, has become imprecise and has virtually fallen out of use because pure arteriosclerosis is rare. It has been replaced by the term ATHEROSCLEROSIS, which more accurately describes the common degenerative disease of arteries. Pure arteriosclerosis may occur as a result of calcium deposition in the middle coat (media) of arteries, reducing their elasticity.

arteriosclerosis

a pathological condition or any of a group of diseases in which there is an increase in the thickness of the arterial walls, a reduction in elasticity of the vessel, and a constriction of diameter which affects the blood flow; the classic ‘hardening of the arteries’ of the elderly. See ATHEROMA.

Arteriosclerosis

A chronic condition characterized by thickening and hardening of the arteries and the build-up of plaque on the arterial walls. Arteriosclerosis can slow or impair blood circulation.

arteriosclerosis

the 'hardening of the arteries' that occurs to a variable extent with ageing. The main cause is atherosclerosis, when deposits known as atheromatous plaques are formed, mainly of cholesterol, in the walls of arteries and cause narrowing of the lumen, e.g. in the coronary arteries (leading to angina or thrombosis), in the cerebral arteries (leading to stroke or senile dementia) or in arteries in the legs (causing ischaemic pain when walking). See also claudication.

arteriosclerosis

age-related artery changes characterized by hardening and stiffening of the wall and loss of arterial pulsatility; exacerbated by hypertension and diabetes; larger arteries (>1 mm diameter) show initial compensatory medial-layer muscular hypertrophy, then later fibrosis of walls and dilatation of the lumen; smaller arteries (<1 mm diameter) and arterioles show medial-layer hypertrophy and thickening of the intimal layer, leading to arteriostenosis and reduction of distal flow

arteriosclerosis 

Thickening and hardening of the walls of arteries which results in an obstruction of the blood flow. It is most frequently the result of hypertension but in the elderly it can develop in the absence of hypertension. In the retina, the branches of the central retinal artery may become straightened at first, later they become lengthened and tortuous, the arteriovenous (A-V) crossings are abnormal. Arteries resemble 'copper wire' as they become infiltrated with lipid deposits and eventually as 'silver wire' as the deposits increase and the whole thickness of the artery appears as a bright white reflex. Some retinal oedema may be present and as the disease progresses there are retinal haemorrhages and small sharp-edged exudates without surrounding oedema. This retinal condition is called arteriosclerotic retinopathy. See atherosclerosis; anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy; hypertensive retinopathy; sphygmomanometer.

ar·te·ri·o·scle·ro·sis

(ahr-tēr'ē-ō-skler-ō'sis)
Hardening of the arteries; types generally recognized are: atherosclerosis, Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis, and arteriolosclerosis.
Synonym(s): arterial sclerosis.
[L. arteria, + G. sklērōsis, hardness]

arteriosclerosis (ärtir´ēōsklerō´sis),

n a term applied to a group of diseases that affect the elasticity of the blood vessels. It may refer to atherosclerosis, hyperplastic arteriosclerosis, or Mönckeberg's sclerosis. These degenerative processes generally affect only the tunica media and tunica intima. The effect is narrowing of the lumen of a blood vessel, causing rupture of the blood vessel or ischemia of an area of tissue that the vessel supplies.

arteriosclerosis

a group of diseases of humans characterized by thickening and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls. Of no importance in animals.

Monckeberg's arteriosclerosis
medial calcific sclerosis of humans.