The process variables that must be controlled to achieve the as-cast ausferritic microstructure include the chemical composition of the metal and the cooling rate
of the different sections of the casting.
The mechanical properties are improved by controlling the second phase precipitation, and 6xxx alloys can be aged if cooling is performed at a proper cooling rate
t] do not have the same physical meaning as for isothermal crystallization because the cooling rate
affects the rate of both nuclei formation and spherulite growth.
should be rapid in ice water bath, when a heat exchanger is not available.
Among these are the mechanism of film and nucleate boiling processes, calculating the duration of the transient nucleate boiling mode, the accuracy of cooling curves and cooling rate
measurements, the results of investigations based on using noise control systems, and the real and effective heat transfer coefficients.
The energy exchange can also be profiled to allow a variable cooling rate
within a cycle.
2, and consequently used for the determination of the cooling rate
and the temperature dependence of combined heat transfer coefficient applying the inverse-numerical-correlation (INC) method (Alifanov, 1994).
A rapid cooling rate
may result in component cracking and a very slow cooling rate
in thicker intermetallics.
Purdue University researchers have shown that the technology increased the heat-transfer coefficient, which describes the cooling rate
, by as much as 250 percent.
Biblical chronologies, the cooling rate
of the Earth, rates of erosion and the thickness of sedimentary rocks, the saltiness of the oceans, the radioactivity of the rocks, and the constituents of the Moon and meteorites are among the evidence that Jackson (geology, Trinity College, Dublin) describes people using through the years to estimate the age of the planet.
Controlling the uniformity of cooling and the cooling rate
of freshly harvested fruit is key to maintaining its freshness.
After calculating the cooling rate
required, the MAS specialist and a NICC engineer made gradual adjustments to the refrigeration circuit until the desired cooling rate