antipsychotic

(redirected from conventional antipsychotic)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.

antipsychotic

 [an″te-, an″ti-si-kot´ik]
modifying psychotic behavior.
antipsychotic agent any drug that favorably modifies psychotic symptoms; categories include the phenothiazines, butyrophenones, thioxanthenes, dibenzodiazepines, diphenylbutylpiperidines, dihydroindolones, and dibenzoxazepines. They are chemically diverse but pharmacologically similar. Formerly called major tranquilizer.

Antipsychotics stabilize mood and reduce anxiety, tension, and hyperactivity. They are also effective in helping to control agitation and aggressiveness. Delusions and hallucinations are often modified and may be eliminated by such an agent, but once the drug is discontinued, the delusions and hallucinations often return within a short while. Different antipsychotic agents bind to dopamine, histamine, muscarinic, cholinergic, α-adrenergic, and serotonin receptors. Blockade of dopaminergic transmission in various areas is thought to be responsible for the major antipsychotic, antiemetic effects of these agents as well as neurologic side effects. The drugs are contraindicated in patients suffering from central nervous system depression, severe allergy, Parkinson's disease, or a blood dyscrasia. There also is the possibility of drug-drug interaction when neuroleptic drugs are given concurrently with barbiturates, alcohol, tricyclic antidepressants, antihypertensives, meperidine, anticonvulsants, or levodopa.

Many antipsychotics have alarming side effects (see extrapyramidal effects); thus there must be thorough patient education and individualized adjustments in dosage. The side effects can usually be minimized by gradually increasing the dosage until the optimum for the individual is reached. Side effects such as a discomforting restlessness and agitation (akathisia), involuntary rhythmic movements of the trunk and limbs, parkinsonism, and tardive dyskinesia are often misinterpreted as symptoms of some unrelated disorder; these are often the reason for noncompliance or stopping of medication by patients. Approximately 20 per cent of the patients treated with neuroleptics for long periods develop tardive dyskinesia, a syndrome of choreoathetoid movements of the tongue, mouth, face, neck, limbs, and trunk, which may continue after the drug is stopped.

Antipsychotic agents are sometimes prescribed for conditions other than mental disorders. They can be beneficial in the control of nausea, in the treatment of intractable hiccups, in controlling the movement disorders associated with Huntington's chorea and Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome, and, in combination with other drugs, for the control of pain.

an·ti·psy·chot·ic

(an'tē-sī-kot'ik),
1. Synonym(s): antipsychotic agent
2. Denoting the actions of such an agent (for example, chlorpromazine).

antipsychotic

/an·ti·psy·chot·ic/ (-si-kot´ik) effective in the treatment of psychotic disorders; also, an agent that so acts. Antipsychotics are a chemically diverse but pharmacologically similar class of drugs; besides psychotic disorders, some are also used to treat movement disorders, intractable hiccups, or severe nausea and vomiting.

antipsychotic

(ăn′tē-sī-kŏt′ĭk, ăn′tī-)
adj.
Counteracting or diminishing the symptoms of psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia.
n.
An antipsychotic drug.

antipsychotic

[-sīkot′ik]
Etymology: Gk, anti + psyche, mind, osis, condition
1 pertaining to a substance or procedure that counteracts or diminishes symptoms of a psychosis.
2 an antipsychotic drug. Categories include the phenothiazine derivatives, butyrophenones, thioxanthene derivatives, dibenzodiazepines, diphenylbutylpiperidines, dihydroindolones, and dibenzoxazepines. They are chemically diverse but pharmacologically similar. Formerly called major tranquilizer.

antipsychotic

adjective Referring to an antipsychotic drug.

noun Any drug that attenuates psychotic episodes.
 
Agents
Phenothiazines, thioxanthenes, butyrophenones, dibenzoxazepines, dibenzodiazepines, diphenylbutylpiperidines.
 
Main types of antipsychotics
Typical and atypical, which differ in their side/adverse effects.
 
Indications
Management of schizophrenic, paranoid, schizo-affective and other psychotic disorders; acute delirium, dementia, manic episodes (during induction of lithium therapy), control of movement disorders (in Huntington’s disease), Tourette syndrome, ballismus, intractable hiccups, severe nausea and vomiting (by blocking the medulla’s chemoreceptor trigger zone).
 
Adverse effects
Extrapyramidal effects (dystonia, akathisia, parkinsonism), tardive dyskinesia due to blocking of basal ganglia; sedation and autonomic side effects (orthostatic hypotension, blurred vision, dry mouth, nasal congestion and constipation) are due to blocking of histaminic, cholinergic and adrenergic receptors.

an·ti·psy·chot·ic

(an'tē-sī-kot'ik)
1. Synonym(s): antipsychotic agent.
2. Denoting the actions of such an agent.

antipsychotic

A drug used in the treatment or control of severe mental illness such as SCHIZOPHRENIA. The antipsychotic drugs include such groups as the benzamides (Amisulpride, Dolmatil, Solian); benzisoxzoles (Risperidal); butyrophenones (Anquil, Dozic, Droleptan, Haldol, Serenace); phenothiazines (Fentazin, Largactil, Melleril, Modecate, Moditen, Neulactil, Nozinan, Stelazine); and thioxanthines (Clopixol, Depixol).

an·ti·psy·chot·ic

(an'tē-sī-kot'ik)
1. Synonym(s): antipsychotic agent.
2. Denoting the actions of such an agent (e.g., chlorpromazine).

antipsychotic

effective in the management of manifestations of psychotic disorders; also, an agent that so acts. There are several classes of antipsychotic drugs (phenothiazines, thioxanthenes, dibenzazepines and butyrophenones), all of which may act by the same mechanism, i.e. blockade of dopaminergic receptors in the central nervous system. Called also neuroleptic and major tranquilizer.
References in periodicals archive ?
Table 7 Conventional Versus Second-Generation Antipsychotic Use Over Time, by Race: Ambulatory Restart Patients with Schizophrenia Initial Drug Used White Black Other Percent Closed Access Period (1) Conventional Antipsychotic 70.
Until very recently, only conventional antipsychotic drugs had been approved for intramuscular injection, and as a result these were the only drugs available for involuntary administration.
Major Finding: After 2003, rates of conventional antipsychotic use among outpatients with dementia were less than 2%.
However, these conventional antipsychotics are more likely to cause serious movement disorders and are not considered by most experts to be as effective in treating "negative" symptoms (such as social withdrawal and apathy), as they are in alleviating "positive" symptoms (including hallucinations and delusions).
Atypical antipsychotics, for many years thought to be safer than older, conventional antipsychotics, confer a similar risk of sudden cardiac death, according to data from a large retrospective study.
For example, one large study previously published in the NEJM demonstrated the advantage of RISPERDAL(R) over the most commonly used conventional antipsychotic, Haldol(ii), and an even larger study which showed that under naturalistic "real world" treatment conditions, RISPERDAL(R) was better than a combined group of physician-selected conventional antipsychotics(iii).
Insel, director of the NIMH, said these results are consistent with several studies in adults published over the last 2-3 years, including the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIB), comparing the atypical antipsychotics with an older, conventional antipsychotic in adults, which did not find significant differences in efficacy.
1) In addition, an analysis of a large health claims database showed that patients with schizophrenia taking atypical antipsychotics, including SEROQUEL, exhibited greater treatment compliance than those taking conventional antipsychotic treatments.
During a 180-day period, the risk of death for all causes among conventional antipsychotic users was similar to and possibly greater than the risk for atypical antipsychotic users.
In a second, open-label, one-year trial, "Time to All-Cause Discontinuation Following Randomization to Open-label Olanzapine, Risperidone, or Conventional Antipsychotic Treatment for Schizophrenia," patients randomized to olanzapine (n=222), risperidone (n=217), or conventional antipsychotics (n=209) of low (n=14), medium (n=135; perphenazine n=49) or high potency (n=49) were compared on time to all-cause medication discontinuation.
ORLANDO -- Dementia patients who have taken atypical and conventional antipsychotic medications have more adverse events than do patients with a history of only one medication, new research shows.

Full browser ?