control of hemorrhage

control of hemorrhage

the limitation or cessation of the flow of blood from a break in the wall of a blood vessel.
method Some of the methods for controlling hemorrhage are direct pressure, use of a tourniquet, and application of pressure on pressure points proximal to the wound. Direct pressure with a thick compress is applied in such a way that the edges of the wound are drawn together. A tourniquet is applied proximal to the site of bleeding only in the most extreme emergency, for the limb may then have to be removed as a result of tissue anoxia stemming from the use of the tourniquet. Firm manual pressure is applied to a pressure point over the main artery supplying the wound. Points used to obtain the pulse may be used as pressure points to stop hemorrhage. See also tourniquet.
interventions Blood flow to an area is limited by restricting activity, elevating the part, and applying pressure. Specific treatment depends on the cause of the hemorrhage and the patient's condition. In addition to IV infusion equipment and fluids, the nurse may anticipate the need for vasopressor drugs, ventilatory assistance, central venous pressure monitoring equipment, and materials for obtaining and recording the blood pressure and urinary output. If signs of shock are present, the patient may be placed supine at a 45-degree angle to the pelvis, with the knees straight and the pelvis slightly higher than the chest. The head may be supported with a pillow. The person may be given oxygen, and the central venous pressure may be measured to determine the need for replacement of fluid volume. Sudden, severe hemorrhage with signs of shock usually is treated with IV infusion of fluids and transfusion of blood. The application of additional warmth to the skin is not recommended because heat increases the metabolism and the need for oxygen.
outcome criteria Signs of continued bleeding, tachycardia, cold sweat, decreasing blood pressure, and patient anxiety alert the nurse to the probability that bleeding has begun again or that replacement fluids administered after the hemorrhage are not adequate. The person is kept calm and quiet. If the fluid balance is promptly restored, recovery is usual. Excessive loss of blood leads to hypoxia of all the tissues of the body, including the brain and vital organs, and causes death.
References in periodicals archive ?
Subjects of specific interest included splinting of fractures, airway management, immediate stoppage and control of hemorrhage, intravenous management, movement under fire, medical evacuation and casualty carries under fire.
a UK based medical device company, today announced that the US Department of Defense's Committee for Tactical Combat Casualty Care (CoTCCC) has added CELOX(TM) Gauze to its guidelines for control of hemorrhage as approved hemostatic agents for military-wide use.
Following successful ligation of the sphenopalatine artery and control of hemorrhage, no further nasal packing was placed in the operating room.
Determine their relevance and potential benefit in combat casualty care, thereby ensuring that the best available treatments for control of hemorrhage are rendered to our Soldiers.
Possible role of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in the control of hemorrhage associated with massive trauma.
The rapid reversal of anticoagulation provided accelerated and effective control of hemorrhage.
This almost always means splenectomy for the bleeding spleen and, in the case of the liver, the briefest maneuver to gain control of hemorrhage.
The evaluation and treatment of trauma patients in the field by emergency medical technicians and paramedics of EMS consist of assessing and monitoring of level of consciousness and of respiratory and cardiac status, management of shock, recording of Glasgow Coma Scale score, airway establishment and maintainance, provisions of supplemental oxygen as needed, control of hemorrhage, head and spine immobilization, as indicated, administration of intravenous crystalloid infusion, as indicated, and recording of vital signs, medical history, patient care information, and treatment procedures.
Marine Polymer Technologies develops and commercializes proprietary biomaterial technologies for the control of hemorrhage resulting from anticoagulation therapy, trauma or surgery.
5) Pressure point control of hemorrhage in the groin and limbs where collateral blood flow is present has been called a "euphemistic misnomer" by investigators because blood flow is restored momentarily in normal volunteers.
21) Early trauma care is error-prone even in mature trauma systems, as delayed control of hemorrhage can lead to preventable deaths for which remedies can be effectively targeted.
64) Investigators at the Medical College of Georgia modeled control of hemorrhage in critical femoral or inguinal penetrating wounds in an ultrasound evaluation.

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