the vaned feathers possessing barbules that chiefly cover the body of a bird and give it a streamlined form. Those which extend beyond the body on the wings and serve for flight are termed flight feathers.
I suggest the first molt cycle under the H-P system should include a bird's first acquisition of contour feathers, and thus propose that the first molt cycle begin with commencement of the initial acquisition of these feathers.
My proposal to start the first molt cycle with commencement of the initial acquisition of contour feathers makes the H-P system more facile with respect to species that have a presupplemental molt that precedes the conventional first prebasic molt (Thompson 2004) and species that have a uniformly-complete conventional first prebasic molt (Table 2).
Our objectives were to investigate: (1) whether dippers have contour feathers similar to those of aquatic or terrestrial bird families in terms of water repellency and resistance to water penetration, and (2) if dippers that dive for their prey have a different feather structure from those that do not dive.