conjugation


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conjugation

 [kon″joo͡-ga´shun]
a joining. In unicellular organisms, a form of sexual reproduction in which two individuals join in temporary union to transfer genetic material. In biochemistry, the joining of a toxic substance with some natural substance of the body to form a detoxified product for elimination from the body.

con·ju·ga·tion

(kon'jŭ-gā'shŭn),
1. The union of two unicellular organisms or of the male and female gametes of multicellular forms followed by partition of the chromatin and the production of two new cells.
2. Bacterial conjugation, effected by simple contact, usually by means of specialized pili through which transfer genes and other genes of the plasmid are transferred to recipient bacteria.
3. Sexual reproduction among protozoan ciliates, during which two individuals of appropriate mating types fuse along part of their lengths; their macronuclei degenerate and the micronuclei in each macronucleus divide several times (including a meiotic division); one of the resulting haploid pronuclei passes from each conjugant into the other and fuses with the remaining haploid nucleus in each conjugant; the organisms then separate (becoming exconjugants), undergo nuclear reorganization, and subsequently divide by asexual mitosis.
4. The combination, especially in the liver, of certain toxic substances formed in the intestine, drugs, or steroid hormones with glucuronic or sulfuric acid; a means by which the biologic activity of certain chemical substances is terminated and the substances made ready for excretion.
5. The formation of glycyl or tauryl derivatives of the bile acids.
6. An alternating sequence of multiple and single chemical bonds in a chemical compound in which there is some delocalization of π-electrons.
7. The joining together of two compounds.
[L. con-jugo, pp. -jugatus, to join together]

conjugation

/con·ju·ga·tion/ (kon″jdbobr-ga´shun)
1. the act of joining together.
2. in unicellular organisms, a form of sexual reproduction in which two cells join in temporary union to transfer genetic material.
3. in chemistry, the joining together of two compounds to produce another compound.

conjugation

(kŏn′jə-gā′shən)
n.
1.
a. The act of conjugating.
b. The state of being conjugated.
2. Biology
a. The temporary union of two bacterial cells during which one cell transfers part or all of its genome to the other.
b. A process of sexual reproduction in which ciliate protozoans of the same species temporarily couple and exchange genetic material.
c. A process of sexual reproduction in certain algae and fungi in which temporary or permanent fusion occurs, resulting in the union of the male and female gametes.

con′ju·ga′tion·al adj.
con′ju·ga′tion·al·ly adv.

conjugation

[kon′jəgā′shən]
1 (in biology) an exchange or transfer of genetic information between two individuals in certain types of unicellular organisms, including bacteria and some protozoa. In Paramecium, for example, both partners swap micronuclear material. The exchanged material is incorporated and passed on to progeny after replication.
2 (in chemistry) a network of atoms connected together by alternating single and double bonds.

conjugation

The act of being joined together or conjugated

con·ju·ga·tion

(kon'jŭ-gā'shŭn)
1. Union of two unicellular organisms or of the male and female gametes of multicellular forms followed by partition of the chromatin and the production of two new cells.
2. Bacterial conjugation, effected by simple contact, through which transfer genes and other genes of the plasmid are transferred to recipient bacteria through pili.
3. Sexual reproduction among protozoan ciliates, during which two individuals of appropriate mating types fuse along part of their lengths; their macronuclei degenerate and the micronuclei in each macronucleus divide several times (including a meiotic division); one of the resulting haploid pronuclei passes from each conjugant into the other and fuses with the remaining haploid nucleus in each conjugant; the organisms then separate (becoming exconjugants), undergo nuclear reorganization, and subsequently divide by asexual mitosis.
4. The combination, especially in the liver, of certain toxic substances formed in the intestine, drugs, or steroid hormones with glucuronic or sulfuric acid; a means by which the biologic activity of certain chemical substances is terminated and the substances made ready for excretion.
5. The formation of glycyl or tauryl derivatives of the bile acids.
[L.con-jugo, pp. -jugatus, to join together]

conjugation

1. Chemical combination or linkage of chemical groups to organic molecules, often to produce a water-soluble form and allow more ready excretion.
2. The exchange of genetic material between paired single-cell organisms, such as bacteria.

conjugation

a method of sexual reproduction involving the fusion of similar GAMETES which are not freed from the parent forms, as in ciliates where two individuals fuse together, exchange micronuclear material, and then separate. Conjugation also occurs in some algae, e.g. Spirogyra and fungi, e.g. Mucor. The transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells in which the DONORS and recipients come into physical contact is also regarded as conjugation. see CONJUGATIVE PLASMID, SEX PILUS.

conjugation

union of two unicellular organisms, or male and female gametes with exchange of genetic material

conjugation

hepatic detoxification of drugs, to form a harmless or inactive product

con·ju·ga·tion

(kon'jŭ-gā'shŭn)
1. An alternating sequence of multiple and single chemical bonds in a chemical compound.
2. Joiningtogether of two compounds.
[L. con-jugo, pp. -jugatus, to join together]

conjugation (kon´jəgā´shən),

n in biochemistry, the union of a drug or toxic substance with a normal constituent of the body, such as glucuronic acid, to form an inactive product that is then eliminated.

conjugation

a joining. In unicellular organisms, a form of sexual reproduction in which two individuals join in temporary union to transfer genetic material. In biochemistry, the joining of a toxic substance with some natural substance of the body to form a detoxified product for elimination from the body.
References in periodicals archive ?
Overall, model predictions are consistent with metabolism of TCE occurring predominantly by oxidation compared with glutathione conjugation, and with more TCA produced from oxidation compared with DCA.
Its custom protein labeling & conjugation service provides personalized solutions designed to supply researchers with the widest choice of labels and conjugates to meet their specific needs.
This technology naturally complements Almac's expertise in peptide and small molecule manufacturing, and can also be allied to its world-class protein conjugation technology offerings.
the tetrapyrrole and tetraphenyl rings are co-planar with a large p-[pi] electron conjugation over the entire [TPPS.
There for one mole of genistein has consumed three mole of PLLA during conjugation reaction.
The conjugation symmetry is also hidden in BZ triangles.
In the presence of beta-lactamase and the opening of the beta-lactam ring, conjugation of the dinitrostyryl group at position 3 with the dihydrothiazine ring increases, with a change in color from yellow to red [32].
The researchers analyzed relaxase because it plays a crucial role in conjugation.
The conjugation of biomolecules -- including proteins, DNA, antibodies and peptides -- to one another and to solid surfaces is a critical and often frustrating component for many pharmaceuticals, diagnostics, clinical lab tests, biomedical research assays and micro arrays.
According to well known theoretical conjectures, supported by experimental observations, the combined charge conjugation and parity symmetry (CP) and time reversal symmetry (I) are closely related by the CPI-theorem.
A binary division of all created existence into the oppositions of spirit/flesh, dark/light, truth/untruth and so on ad infinitum, a view that eventually produced various gnosticisms and other dualistic phenomena, could easily lead to the conjugation of color, "race," and servile status adduced for "alien" blacks, and specifically for black Africans.