confounding

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confounding

 [kon-foun´ding]
interference by a third variable so as to distort the association being studied between two other variables, because of a strong relationship with both of the other variables; a relationship between two causal factors such that their individual contributions can not be separated.

con·found·ing

(kon-fownd'ing),
1. A situation in which the effects of two or more processes are not separated; the distortion of the apparent effect of an exposure on risk, brought about by the association with other factors that can influence the outcome.
2. A relationship between the effects of two or more causal factors observed in a set of data, such that it is not logically possible to separate the contribution of any single causal factor to the observed effects.

confounding

[konfoun′ding]
1 interference by a third variable so as to distort the association being studied between two other variables, because of a strong relationship with both of the other variables.
2 a relationship between two causal factors such that their individual contributions cannot be separated.

con·found·ing

(kŏn-fown'ding)
1. A situation in which the effects of two or more processes are not separated; the distortion of the apparent effect of an exposure on risk, brought about by the association with other factors that can influence the outcome.
2. A relationship between the effects of two or more causal factors observed in a set of data, such that it is not logically possible to separate the contribution of any single causal factor to the observed effects.

confounding

when the effects of two, or more, processes on results cannot be separated, the results are said to be confounded, a cause of bias in disease studies.

confounding factor
one which is distributed non-randomly with respect to the independent (exposure) or dependent (outcome) variable which is the subject of an enquiry.
References in periodicals archive ?
They range from chocolate beers, some of which confoundingly contain no chocolate, to more variations on the pale ale theme than you could shake a stick at.
Even more confoundingly, Genly Ai brings the Gethenians the news that they are the other, the oddity, and not the norm, in a universe where everyone else has two permanent sexes.
Dr Reid said: "Being obese can cause death, but confoundingly losing weight can also cause cardiac arrhythmia.
Spend enough time in and around this church at just about any level and one consistent and striking reality that becomes apparent is how confoundingly complex an organism it is.
Femininity, which men would have fixed and instantly intelligible, is essentially and confoundingly theatrical, superficial--mobile, changing, unknowable--and precisely because of the way those same men have constructed it.
Then explain this: How come the people who run the game of hockey seem to be so confoundingly civil?
For example: the writer who is inventive enough to think of it can offer a statement as confoundingly simple as the one pronounced in "The Barricade" section of The Tunnel--"Things are our only feelings"--to describe the limitations on our apprehension of the infinite range of representation.
Goodman often contrasts tones of two dominant colors; for example, shades of aqua paired with shades of red, or of acid green pitted against orange, to exacerbate the tension caused by images that fluctuate easily between forms that are immediately recognizable and forms that are confoundingly abstract.