confounding


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confounding

 [kon-foun´ding]
interference by a third variable so as to distort the association being studied between two other variables, because of a strong relationship with both of the other variables; a relationship between two causal factors such that their individual contributions can not be separated.

con·found·ing

(kon-fownd'ing),
1. A situation in which the effects of two or more processes are not separated; the distortion of the apparent effect of an exposure on risk, brought about by the association with other factors that can influence the outcome.
2. A relationship between the effects of two or more causal factors observed in a set of data, such that it is not logically possible to separate the contribution of any single causal factor to the observed effects.

confounding

[konfoun′ding]
1 interference by a third variable so as to distort the association being studied between two other variables, because of a strong relationship with both of the other variables.
2 a relationship between two causal factors such that their individual contributions cannot be separated.

con·found·ing

(kŏn-fown'ding)
1. A situation in which the effects of two or more processes are not separated; the distortion of the apparent effect of an exposure on risk, brought about by the association with other factors that can influence the outcome.
2. A relationship between the effects of two or more causal factors observed in a set of data, such that it is not logically possible to separate the contribution of any single causal factor to the observed effects.

confounding

when the effects of two, or more, processes on results cannot be separated, the results are said to be confounded, a cause of bias in disease studies.

confounding factor
one which is distributed non-randomly with respect to the independent (exposure) or dependent (outcome) variable which is the subject of an enquiry.
References in classic literature ?
The third day Nikolay induced his brother to explain his plan to him again, and began not merely attacking it, but intentionally confounding it with communism.
Upon which Flora returned to take care of her, and hovered about her on a sofa, intermingling kind offices and incoherent scraps of conversation in a manner so confounding, that whether she pressed the Marshalsea to take a spoonful of unclaimed dividends, for it would do her good; or whether she congratulated Little Dorrit's father on coming into possession of a hundred thousand smelling- bottles; or whether she explained that she put seventy-five thousand drops of spirits of lavender on fifty thousand pounds of lump sugar, and that she entreated Little Dorrit to take that gentle restorative; or whether she bathed the foreheads of Doyce and Clennam in vinegar, and gave the late Mr F.
Don't try to go confounding the rights and wrongs of things in that way.
said Tom, in such high spirits at this announcement that he quite enjoyed the idea of confounding Maggie by showing her a page of Euclid.
Here, the combination of dehydration and dicrotophos exposure produced plasma cholinesterase activity that was not significantly different from reference and pre-exposure values, confounding the diagnosis of anticholinesterase exposure in dehydrated, dicrotophos-exposed quail.
The study from Nationwide Children's Hospital is the first to use methods controlling for the widest range of confounding factors when directly examining the association between gestational weight gain and childhood cognition.
He pointed out that visit of President Asif Ali Zardari to Punjab has perplexed PML-N leadership and that's the reason they were airing confounding statements adding that PML-N should realized it that President Asif Ali Zardari was elected President of the country and he can visit in any part of the country and it should be responsibility of PML-N Punjab Government to welcome the Presidency in Punjab.
Wolves 0 Birmingham City 1 BIRMINGHAM manager Alex McLeish believes Lee Bowyer is confounding his critics after he was again the goal hero in the victory over Wolves at Molineux.
This rhizomatic radicality is not about uprooting our traditions so much as exposing them to our confounding togetherness--as species, peoples, ethnicities, sexes, religions, even as theological members of this panel.
The researchers acknowledge that the relatively high level of health consciousness found among women in the cohort who drank two or more cups a day may help explain the findings, but they add that the robustness of the associations in age-adjusted analyses argues against such confounding.
These variables are difficult to measure (Kaufman 2001), and undercontrol of confounding is likely.
For the first time in 11 games, the Kings did not allow a power-play goal, breaking a lengthy and confounding streak that saw them go from a solid penalty-killing team to one of the league's worst.