confound

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confound

(kŏn-fownd′) [L. confundere, to confuse, to pour together]
1. To introduce bias into a research study.
2. To confuse, bewilder, or mystify. confounding, n.
References in periodicals archive ?
Fisher was very aware that the possible presence of unknown confounders invalidates epidemiological studies as a way of proving cause and effect relationship (6).
An example of a sensitivity analysis (26) performed to account for potential residual confounding caused by a hypothetical unmeasured confounder is reported in Table 5.
In choosing a control for the potential confounder of increasing symptoms on medication use, we chose three symptoms that are directly related (locally) to the nose: nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, and dysosmia.
This was a complex protocol with multiple treatment confounders.
The researchers found that the TBI patients saw a threefold higher mortality before age 56, compared with controls, even after adjusting for socioeconomic confounders (adjusted odds ratio, 3.
The resulting confounding can be controlled using propensity scores to balance observed confounders between treatment groups.
Analysis of covariates indicated that gender, religion, and residence largely had no effect on the associations between pathogens; however, in some instances, age and season were identified as confounders or effect modifiers (Table 2).
Canadian human rights activist Nazanin Afshin-Jam, president and confounder of the Stop Child Executions organization, moderated the award ceremony.
To gauge the sensitivity of our results to unmeasured confounding, we simulated varying strengths of hypothetical associations between a single, binary unmeasured confounder and DES receipt as well as between such a confounder and death through 3 years.
Researchers have conceptualized the role of ozone in studies of heat in various ways--as a confounder (e.