conditioned stimulus


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stimulus

 [stim´u-lus] (L.)
any agent, act, or influence that produces functional or trophic reaction in a receptor or an irritable tissue.
conditioned stimulus a stimulus that acquires the ability to evoke a given response by repeatedly being linked with another stimulus that naturally evokes that response; see also conditioning.
depolarizing stimulus a stimulus that lowers the resting potential, making the inside of a fiber less negative. In cardiac fibers this means bringing the resting potential from −90 mV to −70 mV.
discriminative stimulus a stimulus associated with reinforcement, which exerts control over a given type of behavior; the subject must discriminate between closely related stimuli and respond positively only with this particular stimulus.
eliciting stimulus any stimulus, conditioned or unconditioned, that elicits a response.
threshold stimulus a stimulus that is just strong enough to elicit a response.
unconditioned stimulus any stimulus that naturally evokes a specific response; see also conditioning.

con·di·tioned stim·u·lus

1. a stimulus applied to one of the sense organs (for example, receptors of vision, hearing, touch) that are an essential and integral part of the neural mechanism underlying a conditioned reflex;
2. a neutral stimulus, when paired with the unconditioned stimulus in simultaneous presentation to an organism, capable of eliciting a given response.

conditioned stimulus

n. Psychology
A previously neutral stimulus that, after repeated association with an unconditioned stimulus, elicits the response effected by the unconditioned stimulus itself.

conditioned stimulus

Etymology: L, conditio + stimulus, goad
any stimulus to which a reflex response has been conditioned by previous training or experience.

con·di·tioned stim·u·lus

(kŏn-dish'ŭnd stim'yū-lŭs)
1. A stimulus applied to one of the sense organs that are an essential and integral part of the neural mechanism underlying a conditioned reflex.
2. A neutral stimulus, when paired with the unconditioned stimulus in simultaneous presentation to an organism, capable of eliciting a given response.
3. To improve one's physical state by exercise.

stimulus

pl. stimuli [L.] any agent, act, or influence that produces functional or trophic reaction in a receptor or an irritable tissue.

conditioned stimulus
a neutral object or event that is psychologically related to a naturally stimulating object or event and which causes a conditioned response. See also conditioning.
discriminative stimulus
a stimulus associated with reinforcement, which exerts control over a particular form of behavior; the subject discriminates between closely related stimuli and responds positively only in the presence of that stimulus.
eliciting stimulus
any stimulus, conditioned or unconditioned, which elicits a response.
stimulus generalization
in learning by animals stimuli tend to be grouped together, the reactions lacking the discrimination of the higher mammals.
stimulus response coupling
coupling of the neural or endocrine stimulus to the cellular response.
structured stimulus
a well-organized and unambiguous stimulus, the perception of which is influenced to a greater extent by the characteristics of the stimulus than by those of the perceiver.
threshold stimulus
a stimulus that is just strong enough to elicit a response.
unconditioned stimulus
any stimulus that is capable of eliciting an unconditioned response. See also conditioning.
unstructured stimulus
an unclear or ambiguous stimulus, the perception of which is influenced to a greater extent by the characteristics of the perceiver than by those of the stimulus.
References in periodicals archive ?
In humans, practically any unconditioned stimulus can be associated with any conditioned stimulus, and the intensity of the conditioned response usually increases with repeated reinforcement.
The sound of the tuning fork was labeled the conditioned stimulus (CS) since it was dependent upon the unconditioned stimulus.
The researchers also proposed a model that associative learning takes place when a conditioned stimulus is followed by an unconditioned stimulus, triggering convergent neurons.
This suggests that it was the abstract "truth-value" of the stimuli that served as the conditioned stimulus.
Conditioned inhibition produced by extinction of a conditioned stimulus.
Facilitation of instrumental behavior by a Pavlovian appetitive conditioned stimulus.
In paired training, animals were exposed to a bright, white light (650-700 lux) for 6 s (the conditioned stimulus, CS) coincident with, after a 2-s delay, 4 s of vigorous agitation (the unconditioned stimulus, US).
Although it is clear that a conditioned stimulus that reliably predicts reinforcement should be preferred over a stimulus that predicts reinforcement only 50 % of the time (Stagner and Zentall 2010), it appears that the stimulus that was never associated with reinforcement and that occurred on 80 % of the trials when that alternative was chosen did not show compensating conditioned inhibition that should have countered the effect of the conditioned reinforcer.
When a neutral stimulus is presented without consequences and subsequently paired with an Unconditioned Stimulus (US), the Conditioned Response (CR) to the preexposed stimulus is weaker than it is to a novel Conditioned Stimulus (CS) at time of conditioning.
The procedure was that of classical conditioning in that the reinforcement was delivered regardless of presence of absence of response (consisting general movement of the rabbit or movement of the paw to which the electrode was attached) to the conditioned stimulus (light flash).
While expectancy learning involves the activation of an expectation of a real ocurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US), referential learning is thought to change the valence of the conditioned stimulus (CS) without generating an expectancy of the inminent occurrence of the US.
In Pavlovian conditioning, temporal contiguity may be altered by increasing the time between the onset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the onset of the unconditioned stimulus (US), the CS-US interval.