complex carbohydrate


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.
Related to complex carbohydrate: Simple carbohydrate

complex carbohydrate

a polysaccharide, such as a carbohydrate, that is composed of a large number of glucose molecules, so called to distinguish it from a simple sugar.

complex carbohydrate

A carbohydrate characterised by chemical complexity and multiple-side chains of glycogen and fibre; complex-carbohydrate-rich foods include whole grains, brown bread, brown rice, vegetables and beans.

complex carbohydrate

1. A starch.
2. A molecule made of several linked saccharides; a polysaccharide.
ClassificationFormulaExamplesSome Properties
MonosaccharidesC6H12O6GlucoseCrystalline, sweet, very soluble, readily absorbed
PentosesC5H10O5 or C5H10O4RibosePart of nucleic acid, RNA
DeoxyribosePart of nucleic acid, DNA
Disaccharides(C6H10O5)2·H2O or C12H22O11 hydrolyzed to simple sugarsSucrose Lactose MaltoseCrystalline, sweet, soluble, digestible Present in milk
Polysaccharides(C6H10O5)n composed of many molecules of simple sugars. (Since polysaccharides can be composed of various numbers of monosaccharides and disaccharides, n refers to an unknown number of these groups.)Starch Dextrin Cellulose GlycogenAmorphous, little or no flavor, less soluble. Vary in solubility and digestibility.
EnzymeProduced inCarbohydrates DigestedEnd Product
Sucrase (invertase)Small intestineSucroseGlucose and fructose
MaltasesSmall intestine and mucosal cells of small intestineMaltoseTwo d-glucose
LactaseSmall intestineLactosed-glucose and d-galactose
Salivary amylaseSaliva (mouth)Cooked starch, glycogen, and dextrinsMaltose
Pancreatic amylasePancreasRaw and cooked starch and glycogenMaltose
See also: carbohydrate

carbohydrate

a compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, the latter two usually in the proportions of water (CH2O)n. They are classified into mono-, di-, tri-, poly- and heterosaccharides. Carbohydrates in food are an important and immediate source of energy for the body; 1 gram of carbohydrate yields 3.75 calories (16 kilojoules). They are present, at least in small quantities, in most foods, but the chief sources are the sugars and starches of plants. Herbivores are able to utilize the insoluble polysaccharides (crude fiber) because of bacterial conversion to volatile fatty acids by fermentation in the rumen and cecum.
Carbohydrates may be stored in the body as glycogen for future use. If they are eaten in excessive amounts they are converted to and stored as fat. Rapid ingestion of very large amounts in ruminants and horses causes carbohydrate engorgement.

complex carbohydrate
polysaccharides containing either α- and β-type glycosidic bonds. Usually occurring in mixtures in food.
dietary carbohydrate
the carbohydrate components of food.
carbohydrate loading
depletion/repletion means of maximally loading glycogen into type II muscle for increased power of muscle contraction.
carbohydrate loss
glucose loss in urine due to diabetes mellitus or chronic renal disease.
carbohydrate metabolism
series of related enzymic reactions involved in the synthesis and catabolism of carbohydrates.
carbohydrate tolerance test
see glucose tolerance test.
References in periodicals archive ?
Complex carbohydrates are the good guys and should contribute approximately 50% to your total daily energy (food) intake.
We will investigate this pectin's possible applications in wound care, an area in which we already have considerable expertise using natural complex carbohydrates, to further extend our exceptional line of advanced wound care products.
2) First published in "Enzyme Replacement as an Effective Treatment for the Common Symptoms of Complex Carbohydrate Intolerance," Nutrition in Clinical Care, Q2, 2004, by Barbara Levine, Ph.
Beano also named fresh vegetables, bagles, bread, cereals, peanut butter, chilli and tofu as complex carbohydrate foods.
Among the goals of the Laboratory are to expand novel and innovative analytical techniques in the biomedical field using high-performance multidimensional separation methods such as liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC) in regular and/or microfabricated formats connected to mass spectroscopy (MS) to fulfill recent needs to study global changes in expression of nucleic acids (genomics), proteins (proteomics) complex carbohydrates (glycomics) and biosynthesis pathways (metabolomics).
When it comes to digestion, we all lack the intestinal enzyme called alpha-galactosidase which helps break down complex carbohydrates.
The treatment requires that alpha- galactosidase preparations be taken at the same time as ingestion of each half-cup serving of complex carbohydrate foods.
Manapol(R) is a rich concentration of the natural complex carbohydrates and other soluble fiber compounds found in the inner gel of fresh Aloe vera L.
Now, researchers in the United States and Mexico have discovered that a complex carbohydrate in breast milk affords babies even more protection than the antibody specifically made to fight the disease.
DAVANAT(R) is a complex carbohydrate drug that when given in combination with chemotherapeutic agents demonstrates reduced toxicity and increased efficacy by targeting the delivery and penetration of the chemotherapy to the tumor.
As background, Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a carbohydrate-binding protein that is one of the targets of GCS-100, a complex carbohydrate drug candidate that is currently in clinical development for treatment of multiple myeloma, solid tumors and a clinical trial for chronic lymphocytic leukemia is planned to initiate before year-end.